Infectious, Rare and Idiopathic Pulmonary Diseases

Section edited by Sanjay Chotirmall and Giovanni Sotgiu

This section concerns all aspects of pulmonary infection, rare and idiopathic lung diseases including, but not limited to: prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology.

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  1. Research article

    Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: identification of key prognostic determinants using automated CT analysis

    Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) has a variable disease course. Computer analysis of CT features was used to identify a subset of CHP patients with an outcome similar to patients with idiopathic pulm...

    Joseph Jacob, Brian J. Bartholmai, Ryoko Egashira, Anne Laure Brun, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Ronald Karwoski, Maria Kokosi, David M. Hansell and Athol U. Wells

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:81

    Published on: 4 May 2017

  2. Research article

    Prognostic factors in hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia: a retrospective study of a prospective observational cohort

    To date, only few studies have examined the prognostic factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) defined according to the latest criteria, which excludes healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Therefore, ...

    Akihiro Ito, Tadashi Ishida, Hironobu Tokumasu, Yasuyoshi Washio, Akio Yamazaki, Yuhei Ito and Hiromasa Tachibana

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:78

    Published on: 2 May 2017

  3. Case report

    Invasive pulmonary mucormycosis: rare presentation with pulmonary eosinophilia

    Fungi can cause a variety of infectious diseases, including invasive mycosis and non-invasive mycosis, as well as allergic diseases. The different forms of mycosis usually have been described as mutually exclu...

    Taizou Hirano, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Kei Sato, Koji Murakami, Tokiwa Tamai, Yoshiya Mitsuhashi, Tsutomu Tamada, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Naomi Sato, Ryoko Saito, Junya Tominaga, Akira Watanabe and Masakazu Ichinose

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:76

    Published on: 28 April 2017

  4. Research article

    Latin America validation of FACED score in patients with bronchiectasis: an analysis of six cohorts

    The FACED score is an easy-to-use multidimensional grading system that has demonstrated an excellent prognostic value for mortality in patients with bronchiectasis. A Spanish group developed the score but no m...

    Rodrigo Athanazio, Mônica Corso Pereira, Georgina Gramblicka, Fernando Cavalcanti-Lundgren, Mara Fernandes de Figueiredo, Francisco Arancibia, Samia Rached, David de la Rosa, Luis Máiz-Carro, Rosa Girón, Casilda Olveira, Concepción Prados and Miguel Angel Martinez-Garcia

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:73

    Published on: 26 April 2017

  5. Research article

    Exploratory analysis of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Chronic inflammation emerges as a feature of the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in experimental models. Alterations of circulating cell subsets have been observed in patients with PAH. W...

    Lars Harbaum, Kaaja M. Baaske, Marcel Simon, Tim Oqueka, Christoph Sinning, Antonia Glatzel, Nicole Lüneburg, Karsten Sydow, Carsten Bokemeyer and Hans Klose

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:72

    Published on: 26 April 2017

  6. Research article

    Water-pipe smoke condensate increases the internalization of Mycobacterium Bovis of type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and there is an association between tobacco smoke and TB. Water pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also g...

    Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D. Alipoor, Masoud Movassaghi, Mohammad Varahram, Jahangir Ghorbani, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen and Ian M. Adcock

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:68

    Published on: 21 April 2017

  7. Research article

    Co-colonisation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with poorer health in cystic fibrosis patients: an Irish registry analysis

    Pulmonary infection is the main cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are the most prevalent fungal and bacterial pathogens isolated from the CF airway...

    Emma Reece, Ricardo Segurado, Abaigeal Jackson, Siobhán McClean, Julie Renwick and Peter Greally

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:70

    Published on: 21 April 2017

  8. Research article

    Impact of lymphocyte differential count > 15% in BALF on the mortality of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    Chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (CFIIP) has a potential risk of acute exacerbation (AE). However, the usefulness of cellular analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has never been e...

    Reoto Takei, Machiko Arita, Shogo Kumagai, Yuhei Ito, Maki Noyama, Fumiaki Tokioka and Tadashi Ishida

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:67

    Published on: 20 April 2017

  9. Research article

    Penicillin treatment for patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Denmark: a retrospective cohort study

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe.

    Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Stine Bang Andersen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Bjarne Ørskov Lindhardt, Christian von Plessen, Gernot Rohde and Pernille Ravn

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:66

    Published on: 20 April 2017

  10. Research article

    Effect of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on the mechanical properties of the lungs

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are present in approximately 15–50% individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). They may be isolated but more often are multiple. The goal of thi...

    Cécile Rotenberg, Marcel Bonay, Mostafa El Hajjam, Sandra Blivet, Alain Beauchet, Pascal Lacombe and Thierry Chinet

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:64

    Published on: 19 April 2017

  11. Research article

    Healthcare burden of pulmonary hypertension owing to lung disease and/or hypoxia

    Group 3 pulmonary hypertension (PH) encompasses PH owing to lung diseases and/or hypoxia. Treatment patterns, healthcare resource use, and economic burden to US payers of Group 3 PH patients were assessed.

    Gustavo A. Heresi, David M. Platt, Wenyi Wang, Christine H. Divers, Vijay N. Joish, Simon A. Teal and Justin S. Yu

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:58

    Published on: 11 April 2017

  12. Research article

    A burden of rare variants in BMPR2 and KCNK3 contributes to a risk of familial pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe lung disease with only few effective treatments available. Familial cases of PAH are usually recognized as an autosomal dominant disease, but incomplete penetr...

    Koichiro Higasa, Aiko Ogawa, Chikashi Terao, Masakazu Shimizu, Shinji Kosugi, Ryo Yamada, Hiroshi Date, Hiromi Matsubara and Fumihiko Matsuda

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:57

    Published on: 7 April 2017

  13. Research article

    Efficacy of 1, 5, and 20 mg oral sildenafil in the treatment of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a randomized, double-blind study with open-label extension

    In a previous study, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) improvement with sildenafil was not dose dependent at the 3 doses tested (20, 40, and 80 mg 3 times daily [TID]). This study assessed whether lower doses were...

    Carmine Dario Vizza, B. K. S. Sastry, Zeenat Safdar, Lutz Harnisch, Xiang Gao, Min Zhang, Manisha Lamba and Zhi-Cheng Jing

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:44

    Published on: 23 February 2017

  14. Case report

    Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome: a literature review and case study of a Chinese woman presenting a novel FLCN mutation

    The Birt–Hogg–Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a very rare autosomal dominant form of genodermatosis caused by germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, which is mapped to the p11.2 region in chromosome 17. BHD com...

    Shengyu Hao, Fei Long, Fenglan Sun, Teng Liu, Daowei Li and Shujuan Jiang

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:43

    Published on: 21 February 2017

  15. Case report

    Elderly-onset hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and its cytokine profile

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by surfactant accumulation, and is caused by disruption of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling. Abnorma...

    Masayuki Ito, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Hiromitsu Ohta, Keiichi Akasaka, Yoshitaka Uchida, Atsushi Hashimoto, Ayako Shiono, Toshinori Takada, Makoto Nagata, Jun Tohyama, Koichi Hagiwara, Minoru Kanazawa, Koh Nakata and Ryushi Tazawa

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:40

    Published on: 17 February 2017

  16. Research article

    Upregulation of interleukin-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin levels in the lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Innate T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses mediated by interleukin (IL)-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and IL-25 have been shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis of animal models; h...

    Jong-Uk Lee, Hun Soo Chang, Hyeon Ju Lee, Chang An Jung, Da Jeong Bae, Hyun Ji Song, Jong Sook Park, Soo-Taek Uh, Young Hoon Kim, Ki-Hyun Seo and Choon-Sik Park

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:39

    Published on: 15 February 2017

  17. Case report

    First time identification of Pandoraea sputorum from a patient with cystic fibrosis in Argentina: a case report

    Pandoraea species are considered emerging pathogens in the context of cystic fibrosis (CF) and are difficult to identify by conventional biochemical methods. These multidrug resistant ...

    Pablo F. Martina, Mónica Martínez, Guillermo Frada, Florencia Alvarez, Lorena Leguizamón, Claudia Prieto, Carolina Barrias, Marisa Bettiol, Antonio Lagares, Alejandra Bosch, Julián Ferreras and Martha Von Specht

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:33

    Published on: 7 February 2017

  18. Research article

    Hemosiderin-laden macrophages are an independent factor correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case control study

    Increases in hemosiderin-laden macrophages (HLM) are reported to be observed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). According to a recent study, significant correlation between hemosiderin deposition in the l...

    Jun Fukihara, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Masahiko Ando, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Tomoki Kimura, Kensuke Kataoka, Taiki Furukawa, Takeshi Johkoh, Junya Fukuoka, Koji Sakamoto and Yoshinori Hasegawa

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:30

    Published on: 6 February 2017

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