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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects by urinary incontinence status (n = 668)

From: Breathlessness is associated with urinary incontinence in men: A community-based study

Characteristic With UI (n = 51) Without UI (n = 617) p
Age (years) 65.4 (SD 7.2) 62.4 (SD 7.5) 0.007
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.9 (SD 4.1) 23.0 (SD 3.0) 0.792
Dyspnoea score 1.12 (SD 1.11) 0.84 (SD 1.12) 0.032
Breathlessness 22 (44.9%) 178 (29.6%) 0.025
Cough 13 (26.5%) 92 (15.3%) 0.040
Sputum 18 (36.7%) 180 (29.9%) 0.317
Smoking pack-years 48.6 (SD 27.3) 45.8 (SD 27.2) 0.513
Smoking status 1    0.806
   never smoker 9 (17.6%) 100 (26.0%)  
   ex-smoker 27 (52.9%) 352 (57.6%)  
   current smoker 15 (29.4%) 159 (16.4%)  
Alcohol drinking    0.036
   yes 30 (59%) 440 (72%)  
   no 21 (41%) 177 (28%)  
Marital status 1    0.124
   single/divorced 9 (18%) 68 (11%)  
   married 42 (82%) 543 (89%)  
Retirement status 1    0.092
   retired 23 (45%) 212 (35%)  
   not retired 28 (55%) 399 (65%)  
Physical activity 1    0.336
   not active 40 (78.4%) 441 (72.2%)  
   active 11 (21.6%) 170 (27.8%)  
Co-morbidities    
   Hypertension 7 (13.7%) 139 (22.7%) 0.137
   Diabetes mellitus 7 (13.7%) 58 (9.5%) 0.372
   Cancer 3 (5.9%) 22 (3.6%) 0.410
   Ischemic stroke 0 (0%) 17 (2.8%) 0.228
   Depression 0 (0%) 9 (1.5%) 0.383
  1. 1 missing data present
  2. UI, urinary incontinence.
  3. SD, standard deviation.