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Table 3 Respiratory symptoms and risk of urinary incontinence

From: Breathlessness is associated with urinary incontinence in men: A community-based study

Respiratory symptom Distribution Crude odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio1
  n (%) Odds ratio 95% CI p Odds ratio 95% CI p
Breathlessness     0.027    0.025
   No 455 (68.1%) 1    1   
   Yes 201 (30.1%) 1.94 (1.08, 3.50)   2.11 (1.10, 4.06)  
Cough     0.043    0.137
   No 551 (82.5%) 1    1   
   Yes 105 (15.7%) 2.00 (1.02, 3.92)   1.73 (0.84, 3.54)  
Sputum     0.319    0.423
   No 457 (68.4%) 1    1   
   Yes 199 (29.8%) 1.36 (0.74, 2.50)   1.31 (0.68, 2.51)  
  1. 1 adjusted for age, BMI, smoking and alcohol drinking status in logistic regression model
  2. CI, confidence interval.