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Table 1 Input parameters for the economic evaluation

From: Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions

Input variable   Base-case value Range (95% CI)   Source
Costs (€)      
   medication      
tiotropium real-worlda 427.71 426.25 429.17 Belgian database
  theoretical 621.00 / / BCFI
salmeterol real-worldb 225.46 223.00 227.92 Belgian database
   exacerbation theoretical 52.72 41.34 64.48 result 1000 simulations
   exac.-rel. hosp.   5617 5555 5680 Belgian database
Utilities      
   exac.-rel. hosp. QALYgainedc 0.013 0.004 0.019 result 1000 simulations
at admission   -0.077 -0.58 0.79 O'Reilly et al.[9]
at discharge   0.58 -0.16 0.98 O'Reilly et al.[9]
LOS (days)   14.18 14.02 14.34 Belgian database
   exacerbation QALYgainedc 0.003 0.001 0.005 result 1000 simulations
Events (average per patient)      
   exacerbations   0.800 0.775 0.826 Belgian database and Roede et al.[6]
   exac.-rel. hosp.   0.141 0.137 0.144 Belgian database
Efficacy/effectiveness      
   exacerbation relative riskd 0.86 0.81 0.91 Tashkin et al.[8]
   exac.-rel. hosp. relative riskd 0.94 0.82 1.07 Tashkin et al.[8]
  1. BCFI: Belgian Centre for Pharmacotherapeutic Information; LOS: length of stay; NIHDI: National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance; QALY: quality-adjusted life year
  2. a: based on the first year of tiotropium use
  3. b: based on the year before the first delivery of tiotropium
  4. c: average QALY gained per event avoided
  5. d: using the published 95%CI to define our distribution results in the following mean values in the model: 85.85% instead of 86% and 93.67% instead of 94%.