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Table 2 IC, IE and ICERs depending on the initial number of hospitalisations and exacerbations

From: Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions

prior n° of exac. prior number (n°) of hospitalisations
  0 1 2
  IC IE ICER IC IE ICER* IC IE ICER*
0 428 0.0000 dominated 84 0.0008 107666 -259 0.0016 cost saving
  426 429 0.0000 0.0000   -581 819 -0.0009 0.0027   -1589 1211 -0.0017 0.0054  
1 420 0.0005 1265951 77 0.0012 62094 -266 0.0020 cost saving
  416 424 0.0001 0.0008 497057 4154369 -590 812 -0.0004 0.0033   -1599 1204 -0.0013 0.0061  
2 413 0.0009 622357 70 0.0017 41019 -274 0.0025 cost saving
  406 419 0.0002 0.0017 242740 2049176 -599 805 0.0000 0.0039   -1608 1196 -0.0008 0.0066  
3 405 0.0014 407826 62 0.0022 28873 -281 0.0029 cost saving
  395 415 0.0003 0.0025 158255 1338516 -608 797 0.0002 0.0046   -1617 1189 -0.0003 0.0072  
4 398 0.0018 300561 55 0.0026 20974 -289 0.0034 cost saving
  384 410 0.0004 0.0034 116258 983186 -618 790 0.0003 0.0053   -1626 1182 0.0000 0.0077  
5 391 0.0023 236201 47 0.0031 15425 -296 0.0038 cost saving
  374 406 0.0005 0.0042 90683 769988 -627 780 0.0005 0.0061   -1635 1175 0.0003 0.0085  
6 383 0.0027 193295 40 0.0035 11314 -303 0.0043 cost saving
  363 401 0.0006 0.0050 74097 627857 -634 770 0.0007 0.0068   -1645 1167 0.0004 0.0092  
7 376 0.0032 162648 32 0.0040 8146 -311 0.0048 cost saving
  352 397 0.0007 0.0059 62023 529076 -641 760 0.0008 0.0076   -1654 1160 0.0006 0.0099  
8 368 0.0036 139662 25 0.0044 5630 -318 0.0052 cost saving
  341 392 0.0008 0.0067 52879 456718 -650 750 0.0010 0.0084   -1663 1153 0.0007 0.0106  
9 361 0.0041 121784 18 0.0049 3583 -326 0.0057 cost saving
  330 388 0.0009 0.0075 45609 400440 -659 740 0.0011 0.0092   -1672 1143 0.0008 0.0114  
10 353 0.0046 107482 10 0.0053 1885 -333 0.0061 cost saving
  319 383 0.0010 0.0084 39741 355417 -667 730 0.0012 0.0100   -1681 1133 0.0010 0.0122  
  1. Exac. = exacerbations
  2. IC: incremental cost (expressed in euro); IE: incremental effect (expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained); ICER: incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (expressed in cost per QALY gained). In every cell, the mean value and the lower (2.5%) and upper (97.5%) limits of the interval are mentioned.
  3. * the ICERs of the probabilistic model are not mentioned since simulation results are spread over several quadrants of the cost-effectiveness plane. As an alternative (in italics), the ICER calculated by dividing the mean incremental cost by the mean incremental benefit is presented.