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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Does tiotropium lower exacerbation and hospitalization frequency in COPD patients: results of a meta-analysis

Study Participants Interventions and duration Notes
Brusasco
2003[17]
1207 patients >40 years, >10 pack years, FEV1 ≤ 65% and FVC ≤ 70% Tiotropium 18 μg
Salmeterol 50 μg
Placebo
6 months
Permitted: not stated
Not permitted: not stated
Casaburi
2002[21]
921 patients ≥ 40 years, ≥ 10 pack years, FEV1 ≤ 65%, FVC ≤ 70% Tiotropium 18 μg
Placebo
1 year
Permitted: Albuterol as needed, stable doses of theophylline, inhaled glucocorticosteroids and the equivalent of 10 mg oral prednisone/day, Not permitted: anticholinergics and long-acting β2-agonists
Chan
2007[11]
913 patients ≥ 40 years, >10 pack years, FEV1 ≤ 60% and FEV1/FVC ≤ 0.70, ≥ 1 exacerbation in the past 2 years but not within 6 weeks before study Tiotropium 18 μg
Placebo
1 year
Permitted: oral steroids at stable dose ≤ 10 mg prednisone/day, stable doses of inhaled steroids, theophylline, mucolytic, long-acting β2-agonists; salbutamol for acute relief
Not permitted: inhaled anticholinergics or oral β2-agonists
Dusser
2006[22]
1010 patients ≥ 40 years, 10 pack years, pre-bronchodilator FEV1 30-65% and FEV1/SVC ≤ 70%, ≥ 1 exacerbation in the last year but not within 6 weeks prior to the study Tiotropium 18 μg
Placebo
48 weeks
Permitted: short-acting betagonists, concomitant use of inhaled or oral steroids (< 10 mg prednisone equivalent) at stable dosages, treatment of COPD exacerbations as deemed necessary
Not permitted: Longacting β2-agonists, inhaled anticholinergics other than the study drug and theophylline
Niewoehner 2005[18] 1829 patients ≥ 40 years, ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1 ≤ 60%
FVC ≤ 70%
Tiotropium 18 μg
Placebo
6 months
Permitted: Usual care authorized (including inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists), antibiotics and systemic steroids for exacerbations.
Not permitted: other anticholinergic bronchodilators
Powrie
2007[10]
142 patients ≥ 10 pack years, FEV1 < 80% and FEV1/FVC < 70% Tiotropium 18 μg
Placebo
1 year
Permited: usual medication
Not permitted: Anticholinergics other than the study drug
Tashkin
2008[13]
5992 patients ≥ 40 years, ≥ 10 pack years, FEV1 ≤ 70% and FEV1/FVC < 0.7, and perform satisfactory spirometry Tiotropium 18 μg
Placebo
4 years
Permitted: usual medication
Not permitted: anticholinergics other than study drug unless for the treatment of exacerbations
Tonnel
2008[14]
554 patients ≥ 40 years, > 10 pack years, FEV1 ≤ 70% and FEV1/SVC < 0.7 Tiotropium 18 μg
Placebo
9 months
Permitted: salbutamol, stable dosage of theophylline, mucolytics, ICS and oral steroids (< 10 mg of prednisone)
Not permitted: β-blockers, antileukotrienes, oral or inhaled long-acting β2-agonists, short-acting anticholinergics, or any other investigational drug
Vincken
2002[19]
535 patients ≥ 40 years, ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1 ≤ 65% and FVC ≤ 70% Tiotropium 18 μg
Ipratropium 40 mg
52 weeks
Permitted: salbutamol as needed; theophyllines, inhaled steroids and oral steroids (at a dose of ≤ 10 mg/day prednisolone or equivalent) if stable dosage.
Not permitted: other β2-agonists (long or short acting) and inhaled anticholinergic medications (other than study drugs)