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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis.

From: Diagnostic accuracy of pleural fluid NT-pro-BNP for pleural effusions of cardiac origin: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Year Country Design Assay Type Reference Standard Control Group
Tomcsanyi et al[16] 2004 Hungary PC ECLIA(1) Clinical Criteria*
a, b, c, e
57% M; 14% I; 29% O
Porcel et al[17] 2004 Spain PC ECLIA(1) Clinical Criteria*
a, b, c, d, e, f
NR
Kolditz et al[18] 2006 Germany PC ECLIA(1) Clinical Criteria*
a, b, c, e, f
59% M; 21% I; 30% O
Porcel et al[19] 2007 Spain PC ECLIA(1) Clinical Criteria*
a, b, c, d, e, f
48% M; 20% I; 32% O
Liao et al[20] 2008 USA PC ELISA Clinical Criteria*
a, c, e
25% M; 0% I; 75% O
Han et al[21] 2008 Korea PC ECLIA(1) Clinical Criteria*
a, b, e, f
24% M; 66% I; 10% O
Seyhan et al[22] 2009 Turkey PC ECLIA Clinical Criteria*
N/A
N/A
Porcel et al[23] 2009 Spain RC ECLIA(2) Clinical Criteria*
a, b, c, e, f
44% M; 29% I; 27% O
Bayram et al[24] 2009 Turkey PC ECLIA(1) Clinical Criteria*
a, b, c, e, f
23% M; 31% I; 46% O
Long et al[25] 2010 USA RC ELISA Clinical Criteria*
a, b, c, e
25% M; 25% I; 25% O
  1. * = heart failure diagnosis based on (a) history, or (b) physical exam, or (c) chest x-ray, or (d) electrocardiogram, or (e) echocardiogram, or (f) response to diuretics; † = non-cardiac effusions; ‡ = generation of assay (one or two); ECLIA = electrochemical luminescence immunoassay; ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; I = infectious effusion; M = malignant effusion; N/A = not available; NR = not recorded; O = other causes (i.e. connective tissue disease, pleuritis, post-CABG, hepatic hydrothorax, pulmonary embolism, etc); PC = prospective cohort; RC = retrospective cohort;