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Table 17 Risk of lung cancer by use of mentholated cigarettesa (adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking habits and other variablesb)

From: Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

   RR (CI)
Study Comparison Males Females White people Black people Overall total
American Health Foundation 1 [68] Ever/never used M (in current smokers) 1.06 (0.82-1.37) 0.78 (0.57-1.08)    0.94 (0.77-1.15)
Kaiser Permanente [51] Usual brand M or not (in current smokers for 20+ years) 1.45 (1.03-2.02) 0.75 (0.51-1.11)    1.09 (0.85-1.41)
Los Angeles [69] Ever/never used M (in ever smokers) 1.00 (0.68-1.48) 0.88 (0.50-1.57) 1.02 (0.66-1.58) 0.89 (0.53-1.47) 1.00 (0.72-1.40)
Slone Epidemiology Center study [53] Ever/never used M (in ever smokers) 0.77 (0.55-1.08) 1.05 (0.72-1.55) 0.93 (0.69-1.24) 0.91 (0.52-1.59) 0.89 (0.69-1.14)
American Health Foundation 2 [83] Currently prefers/does not prefer M (in current smokers) 0.92 (0.72-1.17) 0.66 (0.46-0.95) 0.76 (0.60-0.96) 1.09 (0.72-1.65) 0.83 (0.68-1.02)
German [84] Ever/never used M (in ever smokers)    1.12 (0.68-1.83)c   1.12 (0.68-1.83)
Lung Health [56] Current brand M or not (in current smokers)      0.96 (0.70-1.32)
Houston [85] Ever/never used M (in ever smokers)     0.81 (0.60-1.09)c 0.81 (0.60-1.09)
  (in current smokers)     0.69 (0.46-1.03)c 0.69 (0.46-1.03)
  (in former smokers)     0.99 (0.62-1.56)c 0.99 (0.62-1.56)
  1. a Mentholated cigarettes abbreviated to M in the table.
  2. b All estimates are adjusted for age, gender and race except for those that are gender-specific or race-specific. All estimates are adjusted for smoking habits except for the current and former smoker estimates from the Houston study. See Table 14 for fuller details of adjustment variables.
  3. c Same as the overall results, as the studies were only of White people [84] or Black people [85].