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Table 18 Meta-analyses of risk of lung cancer by use of mentholated cigarettes

From: Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

  Number of
Estimates
RR (95% CI)    Heterogeneity χ2(df), p
   Fixed-effect   Random-effects  
In ever smokers (or current smokers if not available)      
Overall 8 0.93 (0.84-1.02)   0.93 (0.84-1.02) 4.43 (7), 0.73
Study design      
- prospective 2 1.04 (0.85-1.26)   1.04 (0.85-1.26) 0.38 (1), 0.54
- hospital case-control 3 0.89 (0.78-1.00)   0.89 (0.78-1.00) 0.73 (2), 0.69
- population case-control 3 0.92 (0.76-1.13)   0.92 (0.76-1.13) 1.54 (2), 0.46
NOS study quality score      
- 7 to 9 3 1.03 (0.87-1.22)   1.03 (0.87-1.22) 0.41 (2), 0.84
- 5 to 6 5 0.88 (0.79-0.99)   0.88 (0.79-0.99) 1.94 (4), 0.75
Study size      
- < 125 casesa 4 0.99 (0.85-1.15)   0.99 (0.85-1.15) 1.52 (3), 0.68
- 125+ cases 4 0.89 (0.79-1.00)   0.89 (0.79-1.00) 1.59 (3), 0.66
Year of publication      
- 1991 to 2000 3 1.00 (0.86-1.15)   1.00 (0.86-1.15) 0.81 (2), 0.67
- 2001 to 2008 5 0.88 (0.77-0.99)   0.88 (0.77-0.99) 1.82 (4), 0.77
Avoiding possible overlapb 6 0.93 (0.83-1.04)   0.93 (0.83-1.04) 4.31 (5), 0.51
Males 5 1.01 (0.88-1.15)   1.01 (0.84-1.22) 7.62 (4), 0.11
Females 5 0.80 (0.67-0.95)   0.80 (0.67-0.95) 3.25 (4), 0.52
White people 4 0.87 (0.75-1.03)   0.87 (0.75-1.03) 2.98 (3), 0.40
Black people 4 0.90 (0.73-1.10)   0.90 (0.73-1.10) 1.30 (3), 0.73
In current smokers (or ever smokers if not available)      
Overall 8 0.92 (0.84-1.02)   0.92 (0.84-1.02) 5.70 (7), 0.58
Black people 4 0.88 (0.70-1.10)   0.88 (0.70-1.10) 2.44 (3), 0.49
In ever smokers specifically      
Overall 4 0.91 (0.78-1.07)   0.91 (0.78-1.07) 1.60 (3), 0.66
In current smokers specifically      
Overall 5 0.91 (0.82-1.02)   0.91 (0.81-1.03) 4.76 (4), 0.31
In former smokers specifically      
Total 1 0.99 (0.62-1.56)   0.99 (0.62-1.56) -
  1. a Lung cancer cases in mentholated cigarette smokers.
  2. b Excluding first American Health Foundation Study and Slone Epidemiology Center study.