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Table 19 Risk of lung cancer by long-term use of mentholated cigarettesa (adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking habits and other variablesb)

From: Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

   RR (CI)
Study Exposurec Males Females White people Black people Total
American Health Foundation 1 [68] 15+ years use of M (in current smokers) 0.98 (0.70-1.38) 0.76 (0.53-1.16)    0.88 (0.68-1.14)
Kaiser Permanente [51] 20+ years use of M (in current smokers for 20+ years) 1.59 (0.96-2.63) 0.70 (0.40-1.23)    1.10 (0.76-1.60)
Los Angeles [69] 32+ pack-years M (in ever smokers) 1.48 (0.71-3.05) 0.41 (0.15-1.11) 1.06 (0.47-2.36) 0.90 (0.38-2.12) 0.95 (0.53-1.70)
Slone Epidemiology Center study [53] 15+ years of M (in ever smokers) 0.91 (0.57-1.46) 1.00 (0.63-1.60) 1.01 (0.68-1.51) 1.21 (0.64-2.26) 0.97 (0.70-1.34)
  1. a Mentholated cigarettes abbreviated to M in the table; reference group is those with no use of mentholated cigarettes.
  2. b Details of all adjustment variables are given in Table 14.