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Table 5 Risk of lung cancer by mentholated cigarette use among current smokers for 20 years or more - Kaiser Permanente prospective study [51]

From: Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

     Duration of mentholated cigarette use (years)
     0 1-9 10-19 20+ Any
Gender Age No. of casesa Adjusted RR RR (CI) RR (CI) RR (CI) RR (CI)
Male < 50 6 (3) No 1.0 - - - 2.2 (0.5-11.1)
  50-64 82 (24) No 1.0 - - - 1.1 (0.7-1.8)
  65-74 60 (22) No 1.0 - - - 1.7 (1.0-2.9)
  75+ 20 (6) No 1.0 - - - 1.7 (0.6-4.3)
  All 168 (55) Ageb 1.00 - - - 1.40 (1.01-1.94)
  All 160 (51)c Age, othersd 1.00 - - - 1.45 (1.03-2.02)
  All 158 (57)e Age, othersd 1.00 1.10 (0.65-1.87) 1.32 (0.84-2.08) 1.59 (0.96-2.63) -
Female < 50 11 (2) No 1.0 - - - 0.3 (0.1-1.6)
  50-64 61 (19) No 1.0 - - - 0.8 (0.5-1.4)
  65-74 50 (10) No 1.0 - - - 0.6 (0.3-1.1)
  75+ 28 (7) No 1.0 - - - 0.9 (0.4-2.1)
  All 150 (38) Ageb 1.00 - - - 0.71 (0.50-1.00)
  All 138 (34)c Age, othersd 1.00 - - - 0.75 (0.51-1.11)
  All 132 (42)c Age, othersd 1.00 0.72 (0.38-1.39) 1.01 (0.61-1.69) 0.70 (0.40-1.23) -
Combined < 50 17 (5) Genderb 1.00 - - - 0.73 (0.26-2.04)
  50-64 143 (43) Genderb 1.00 - - - 0.95 (0.67-1.35)
  65-74 110 (32) Genderb 1.00 - - - 1.12 (0.74-1.69)
  75+ 48 (13) Genderb 1.00 - - - 1.17 (0.62-2.21)
  All 318 (93) Gender, ageb 1.00 - - - 1.02 (0.80-1.29)
  All 298 (85)c Gender, age, othersb,d 1.00 - - - 1.09 (0.85-1.41)
  All 290 (99)c Gender, age, othersb,d 1.00 0.93 (0.62-1.40) 1.17 (0.84-1.65) 1.10 (0.76-1.60) -
  1. a The first number includes non-mentholated cigarette smokers and the bracketed number is for mentholated cigarette smokers only
  2. b RRs and CIs derived as described in additional file 1: Methods for deriving RR estimates.
  3. c There were fewer subjects in the analyses adjusted for age and other variables than for those adjusted for age only, presumably because of missing data for the other variables.
  4. d The other adjustment factors were race, education, years of smoking and number of cigarettes per day.
  5. e The lesser total cases in this analysis than the previous one is presumably because of missing data on duration of mentholated cigarette use. However, it is unclear why there were more cases who smoked mentholated cigarettes.