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Table 2 Characteristics of the subjects in the induced sputum analyses

From: Ageing and long-term smoking affects KL-6 levels in the lung, induced sputum and plasma

Variable Middle aged/elderly   
  Non-smokers Smokers COPD
Subjects, n 15 20 19
Age, yr 52 ± 1.9 52 ± 1.5 61 ± 1.9***
Sex, M/F 5/10 13/7 17/2**
Pack years, yr 0 29 ± 1.9*** 45 ± 3.8***
Post-bronchodilator    
   FVC, l 3.9 ± 0.21 4.2 ± 0.19 3.6 ± 0.15
   FEV1, l 3.3 ± 0.15 3.5 ± 0.13 2.1 ± 0.13***
   FEV1, % predicted 107 ± 3.9 100 ± 1.7 64 ± 3.2***
   FEV1/FVC 86 ± 1.4 83 ± 1.0 59 ± 2.7***
  1. Data are shown as mean ± SEM
  2. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FVC, Forced vital capacity; FEV1, Forced expiratory volume in one second
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 (vs middle aged/elderly non-smokers, Mann-Whitney U test or Chi-square test)