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Table 4 Risk factors for being diagnosed with TB in HIV infected patients in Denmark

From: Incidence, risk factors and mortality of tuberculosis in Danish HIV patients 1995-2007

Risk factor   Unadjusted analysis   Adjusted analysis  
   Incidence rate ratio
(95% CI*)
p-value Incidence rate ratio
(95% CI*)
p-value
Male gender   2.1 (1.5-3.0) < 0.001 1.0 (0.6-1.5) 0.925
Age < 40 years   1.5 (1.0-2.3) 0.036 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 0.603
Year of HIV 1995-1996 1.0    1.0
Diagnosis 1997-1999 1.1 (0.6-1.9) 0.793 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 0.937
  2000-2007 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 0.896 0.9 (0.5-1.6) 0.684
Country of birth Denmark 1.0   1.0  
  Europe 1.0 (0.4-2.9) 0.955 1.2 (0.4-3.4) 0.709
  Africa 4.7 (3.1-7.0) < 0.001 4.3 (2.6-7.3) < 0.001
  Asia 5.9 (3.5-9.8) < 0.001 5.7 (3.2-10.1) < 0.001
  Other 2.0 (0.7-5.7) 0.173 1.3 (0.5-3.9) 0.586
Route of Homosexual 1.0   1.0  
Transmission Heterosexual 3.9 (2.3-6.5) < 0.001 1.9 (1.0-3.5) 0.048
  IDU 4.2 (2.1-8.4) < 0.001 3.0 (1.5-6.2) 0.003
  Other 4.6 (2.3-9.1) < 0.001 2.4 (1.2-4.9) 0.020
Viral load at HIV diagnosis, log10 copies/mL** > 5.0 1.4 (0.8-2.2) 0.223 1.12 (0.8-1.6) 0.500
CD4 cell count at HIV diagnosis, cells/μL*** ≤ 200 3.8 (2.4-6.0) < 0.001 1.6 (1.1-2.2) 0.005
Diagnosed with alcohol abuse   1.3 (0.6-2.7) 0.447 1.9 (0.9-4.0) 0.106
Start of HAART (time-updated)   0.04 (0.03 - 0.07) < 0.001 0.05 (0.03-0.08) < 0.001
  1. * CI: Confidence Interval.
  2. ** 673 patients has missing viral load at time of HIV diagnosis.
  3. *** 532 patients had missing CD4 cell count at time of HIV diagnosis.