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Table 2 Management approach based on control (GINA guidelines)

From: Asthma control cost-utility randomized trial evaluation (ACCURATE): the goals of asthma treatment

STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5
Asthma education
Environmental control
As needed rapid-acting ß2-agonist As needed rapid-acting ß2-agonist
  Select one Select one Add one or more Add one or both
  Low-dose ICS* Low-dose ICS plus long-acting ß2-agonist Medium- or high dose ICS plus long-acting ß2-agonist Oral corticosteroid (lowest dose)
  Leukotriene modifier Medium- or high dose ICS Leukotriene modifier Anti-IgE treatment
   Low-dose ICS plus Leukotriene modifier   
  1. *ICS = inhaled corticosteroids