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Table 3 Comparison of three matched cohorts on their pre-index date categorical variables using McNemar's test for paired observations.

From: Comparison of resource use by COPD patients on inhaled therapies with long-acting bronchodilators: a database study

  LABA or LAMATx
(n = 523)
LABA and LAMA Tx
(n = 523)
LABA, LAMA, and ICS Tx
(n = 523)
Significant Pairwise tests*
Categorical Variables n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Male 280 (53.5) 280 (53.5) 280 (53.5) NONE
North 210 (40.2) 218 (41.7) 222 (42.4) NONE
Northeast 52 (9.9) 50 (9.6) 49 (9.4) NONE
South 189 (36.1) 189 (36.1) 189 (36.1) NONE
West 71 (13.6) 65 (12.4) 61 (11.7) NONE
Cardiovascular specialist 170 (32.5) 181 (34.6) 176 (33.7) NONE
Internist 253 (48.4) 260 (49.7) 264 (50.5) NONE
Neoplasms 128 (24.5) 146 (27.9) 149 (28.5) NONE
Pneumonia 51 (9.8) 51 (9.8) 51 (9.8) NONE
Hypertension 187 (35.8) 209 (40.0) 203 (38.8) NONE
Heart failure 59 (11.3) 53 (10.1) 56 (10.7) NONE
Diseases of the respiratory system 482 (92.2) 475 (90.8) 477 (91.2) NONE
Diabetes 67 (12.8) 71 (13.6) 73 (14.0) NONE
Ischemic heart disease 116 (22.2) 116 (22.2) 116 (22.2) NONE
Pulmonary vascular disease 16 (3.1) 19 (3.6) 15 (2.9) NONE
Stroke 40 (7.6) 45 (8.6) 37 (7.1) NONE
Hospital visit (≥ 1) 89 (17.0) 81 (15.5) 68 (13.0) NONE
ER visit (≥ 1) 148 (28.3) 142 (27.2) 129 (24.7) NONE
ER visit leading to hospitalization (≥ 1) 62 (11.9) 53 (10.1) 55 (10.5) NONE
Non-Medicare payer type** 156 (29.8) 146 (27.9) 161 (30.8) NONE
  1. *Based on McNemar's tests for paired observations. Pairwise tests were conducted and results are listed using the following notation: M = LABA or LAMA, D = LABA and LAMA, T = LABA, LAMA, ICS, NONE = No sig dif. All variables were derived from the 12 month pre-index period.
  2. **An indicator variable for Medicare versus Non-Medicare plan type was used. The plan type of Non-Medicare included Comprehensive, HMO, POS, EPO, PPO, and CDHP.