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Table 5 Unadjusted associations between maternal factors and prenatal exposures on the risk of wheezing

From: Particular characteristics of allergic symptoms in tropical environments: follow up to 24 months in the FRAAT birth cohort study

  6 months 7 - 12 months 0 - 24 months
Factor/exposure Wheezing ever
(n = 50/236)
Wheezing ever
(n = 59/221)
Wheezing ever*
(n = 105/169)
Recurrent wheezing*
(n = 39/235)
  OR (95%CI) P value OR (95%CI) P value OR (95%CI) P value OR (95%CI) P value
Maternal asthma 1.19 (0.38-3.74) 0.76 2.73 (1.06-7.03) 0.03† 2.35 (0.91-6.06) 0.069 3.10 (1.10-8.73) 0.025¶
Maternal rhinitis 2.80 (1.50-5.24) 0.001 1.14 (0.61-2.11) 0.67 1.73 (1.02-2.93) 0.041 1.78 (0.88-3.58) 0.10
Mother education         
< 5 0.81 (0.33-1.98) 0.65 0.76 (0.31-1.85) 0.54 0.99 (0.48-2.01) 0.98 0.92 (0.33-2.55) 0.88
> 11 1.22 (0.50-2.99) 0.65 1.31 (0.54-3.19) 0.54 1.00 (0.49-2.05) 0.98 1.07 (0.39-2.97) 0.88
Parity         
Primiparous 0.96 (0.52-1.79) 0.91 1.03 (0.57-1.84) 0.91 0.84 (0.51-1.38) 0.49 0.97 (0.48-1.93) 0.93
Type of house         
   Wood 0.60 (0.27-1.31) 0.20 0.89 (0.45-1.75) 0.74 0.99 (0.56-1.74) 0.98 0.40 (0.15-1.07) 0.069
Type of floor         
   Soil 0.94 (0.37-2.36) 0.90 0.73 (0.31-1.73) 0.48 1.00 (0.48-2.09) 0.98 0.76 (0.28-2.07) 0.59
Tap water         
   No 0.64 (0.21-1.93) 0.43 0.35 (0.10-1.20) 0.09 0.70 (0.31-1.55) 0.38 0.59 (0.17-2.04) 0.40
Sewage         
   No 1.05 (0.56-1.96) 0.86 0.87 (0.48-1.58) 0.66 1.07 (0.65-1.75) 0.78 0.60 (0.29-1.24) 0.16
Socioeconomic strata         
   1 (poorest) 1.10 (0.51-2.35) 0.80 0.59 (0.31-1.14) 0.12 0.76 (0.42-1.36) 0.36 0.92 (0.41-2.07) 0.84
Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke         
   Yes 1.43 (0.77-2.64) 0.24 0.99 (0.55-1.77) 0.98 1.28 (0.78-2.09) 0.32 0.95 (0.48-1.90) 0.89
Exposure to fume wood/coal         
   Yes 0.42 (0.12-1.43) 0.16 1.23 (0.52-2.88) 0.63 1.11 (0.52-2.36) 0.77 1.46 (0.55-3.81) 0.43
Exposure to fume trash burning:         
at home 0.95 (0.44-2.04) 0.90 0.87 (0.42-1.81) 0.71 1.05 (0.57-1.92) 0.86 0.67 (0.26-1.69) 0.40
at neighborhood 1.33 (0.71-2.47) 0.36 1.08 (0.61-1.93) 0.77 1.22 (0.75-2.00) 0.41 1.62 (0.80-3.28) 0.17
Pets during pregnancy         
Intradomicilliary (9 mo) 1.01 (0.55-1.87) 0.95 1.23 (0.67-2.23) 0.49 1.12 (0.67-1.88) 0.64 1.12 (0.55-2.28) 0.74
Intradomicilliary (ever) 1.09 (0.58-2.07) 0.77 0.92 (0.52-1.64) 0.79 1.04 (0.64-1.69) 0.87 0.99 (0.50-1.95) 0.98
Dog at home 0.97 (0.52-1.80) 0.93 0.91 (0.51-1.63) 0.77 1.00 (0.61-1.64) 0.98 0.80 (0.40-1.59) 0.53
Cat at home 0.93 (0.36-2.38) 0.89 0.78 (0.30-1.98) 0.60 0.66 (0.30-1.46) 0.31 0.81 (0.26-2.45) 0.71
Poultry/pigs at home 1.39 (0.62-3.15) 0.41 1.64 (0.76-3.55) 0.20 1.43 (0.71-2.89) 0.30 1.49 (0.60-3.68) 0.38
Rodents at home 0.84 (0.38-1.88) 0.68 1.24 (0.54-2.83) 0.60 1.52 (0.75-3.08) 0.23 0.82 (0.33-2.01) 0.67
Cockroaches at home 0.92 (0.44-1.94) 0.84 0.93 (0.46-1.86) 0.83 0.74 (0.41-1.35) 0.33 0.85 (0.38-1.92) 0.70
Gender         
   Male 1.87 (0.99-3.51) 0.052 § 1.37 (0.76-2.45) 0.28 1.61 (0.98-2.64) 0.055 1.47 (0.74-2.93) 0.26
  1. *Cumulative prevalence
  2. †If the true odds ratio for disease in exposed subjects relative to unexposed subjects is (Ψ = 2.73), the test rejects the null hypothesis that this odds ration equals 1 with 0.56 power
  3. Maternal asthma "Yes" (5.4% in non-wheezers vs. 13.6% in wheezers)
  4. ¶ If the true odds ratio for disease in exposed subjects relative to unexposed subjects is (Ψ = 3.10), the test rejects the null hypothesis that this odds ration equals 1 with 0.55 power
  5. Maternal asthma "Yes" (5.5% in non-recurrent vs. 15.4% in recurrent wheezers)
  6. ‡If the true odds ratio for disease in exposed subjects relative to unexposed subjects is (Ψ = 2.8), the test rejects the null hypothesis that this odds ration equals 1 with 0.89 power
  7. Maternal rhinitis "Yes" (26.3 in non-wheezers vs. 50% in wheezers); (25.4% in non-wheezers vs. 37.1% in wheezers at 24 months)
  8. § If the true odds ratio for disease in exposed subjects relative to unexposed subjects is (Ψ = 1.87), the test rejects the null hypothesis that this odds ration equals 1 with 0.50 power
  9. Male gender "Yes" (48.7% in non-wheezers vs. 64% in wheezers)
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