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Table 2 Univariate analysis of continuous data using the Mann-Whitney test.

From: Systemic air embolism during percutaneous core needle biopsy of the lung: frequency and risk factors

  Patients with air embolism Patients without air embolism   
  Mean Median SD Mean Median SD Unit of measurement Significance
WMT
Level of the lesion above the left atrium 57 63,3 33.2 29.1 33.7 38.9 mm 0.0008 (s)
Needle angle to the tumor surface 65.7 68.4 17.2 72.1 75.1 15.7 Angular degree 0.0638 (ns)
Collimation during the biopsy (smart step) 2.2 2.5 0.8 2.4 2.5 0.5 mm 0.0318 (s)
Number of biopsies 8.9 8 3.0 7.7 7 3.3 number 0.0356 (s)
Absolute Distance from the apex of the lung to the lesion 137.4 151 65.5 110.9 104.3 75.2 mm 0.0397 (s)
Number of specimens 6.8 7 2.1 6.1 6 2.7 number 0.0569 (ns)
Relative distance from the apex of the lung to the lesion 50.6 58.8 22.6 42.6 39.1 24.7 % 0.0606 (ns)
PT 108.1 109 13.5 102.9 103 13.0 % 0.1136 (ns)
Duration of biopsy 49.3 29.9 60.0 25.9 22 14.5 minutes 0.2461 (ns)
Patients age 56.4 62.2 18.0 61.8 63.7 13.4 years 0.2521 (ns)
Rectangular distance from the plane of the most posterior point of the lung to the tumor (absolute) 71.6 62.6 41.0 79.5 74.5 41.4 mm 02854 (ns)
Distance between pleura and tumor in the needle trajectory 19.8 20.5 13.2 24.5 21.2 19.4 mm 0.3322 (ns)
Vertical distance between the lesion and the tabletop 156.5 161 45.2 150.4 145 60.2 mm 03499 (ns)
Rectangular distance from the plane of the most posterior point of the lung to the tumor (relative) 37.5 34.2 23.0 40.6 38.2 22.0 % 0.3599 (ns)
Platelet count 229.3 234 86.1 254.2 243 88.9 Number/ml 0.4030 (ns)
Needle deepness in tumor 10.5 7.1 12.2 7.7 5.3 9.1 mm 0.4589 (ns)
Degree of movement of the patients 1.4 1 0.6 1.6 1 0.8 Ordinal scale
(1-4)
0.4849 (ns)
FEV1 2.4 2.4 0.8 2.3 2.1 0.9 liter 0.4974 (ns)
Diameter (WHO) 22.7 18.1 13.1 22.5 17 16.2 mm 0.5597 (ns)
Density of the lung -848.1 -859 43.9 -843.2 -849 50.2 Hounsfield units 0.5602 (ns)
Axial diameter of the lesion (RECIST) 32.7 28 23.2 30.0 22.4 23 mm 0.5820 (ns)
Volume of the lesion 30.6 6.3 50.9 30.9 5.8 81.9 ml 0.6188 (ns)
PTT 29.7 28.5 4.6 29.9 29 4.3 seconds 0.6736 (ns)
Rectangular distance from the plane of the most lateral point of the lung to the tumor (relative) 53.1 50.6 17.7 52.1 52.0 19.5 % 0.8185 (ns)
Diameter of a visible bleeding in lung (RECIST) 17.5 15.5 13.1 19.4 16.4 20.1 mm 0.8908 (ns)
Rectangular distance from the plane of the most lateral point of the lung to the tumor (absolute) 74,9 72 25.9 73.6 73.8 28.1 mm 0.9235 (ns)
Biopsy length 16.3 15 3.4 16.7 15 3.3 mm 0.9266 (ns)
  1. Abbreviations: FEV1-Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second; ml-Milliliter; mm-Millimeter; ns-not significant; PT-Prothrombine-Time; PTT-Partial Thromboplasine time; s-significant; WMT-Whitney-Mann Test