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Table 2 Baseline characteristics and demographic data between two groups

From: Impact of clinical pathway on clinical outcomes in the management of COPD exacerbation

Characteristic Total N = 193 Non-Clinical Pathway (n = 98) Clinical Pathway (n = 95) Pvalue
Age (years ± sd*) 68.48 ± 8.84 68.78 ± 8.45 68.18 ± 9.27 0.641#
Gender [n(%)]     
Male 168 (87.0) 82 (83.7) 86 (90.5) 0.156ƛ
Female 25 (13.0) 16 (16.3) 9 (9.5)  
Ethnicity [n(%)]     
Malay 51 (26.4) 25 (25.5) 26 (27.4) 0.353£
Chinese 110 (57.0) 61 (62.2) 49 (51.6)  
Indian 29 (15.0) 11 (11.2) 18 (18.9)  
Others 3 (1.6) 1 (1.1) 2 (2.1)  
Level of education [n(%)]     
No formal education 31 (16.1) 18 (18.4) 13 (13.7) 0.035ƛ
Primary 94 (48.7) 54 (55.1) 40 (42.1)  
Secondary 68 (35.2) 26 (26.5) 42 (44.2)  
Working status [n(%)]     
Work(non-professional) 37 (19.2) 15 (15.5) 22 (23.2) 0.166ƛ
Not working 156 (80.8) 83 (84.7) 73 (76.8)  
BMI in kg/m2 (range) 24.4 (20.9–27.2) 24.6 (21.5–27.5) 23.8 (19.1–27.0) 0.382α
BMI category (%)     
Underweight (<18.5) 24 (14.4) 5 (6.9) 19 (20.0) 0.029£
Normal (18.5 – 22.9) 42 (25.1) 23 (31.9) 19 (20.0)  
Overweight (23 – 27.4) 67 (40.1) 26 (36.1) 41 (43.2)  
Obese (>27.4) 32 (20.4) 18 (25.0) 16 (16.8)  
Smoking status [n(%)]     
Current smoker 22 (11.4) 17 (17.3) 5 (5.3) 0.008ƛ
Ex-smoker 171 (88.6) 81 (82.7) 90 (94.7)  
Stage of disease [n(%)]     
Stage 2 7 (4.0) 4 (4.8) 3 (3.4) 0.924£
Stage 3 46 (26.6) 22 (26.2) 24 (27.0)  
Stage 4 120 (69.4) 58 (69.0) 62 (69.7)  
Co Morbidity [n(%)]     
NO 83 (43.0) 38 (38.8) 45 (47.4) 0.228ƛ
YES 110 (57.0) 60 (61.2) 50 (52.6)  
Types of Co morbidity[n(%)]     
Hypertension 91 (47.2) 49 (50.0) 42 (44.2) 0.421ƛ
Diabetes Mellitus 37 (19.2) 18 (18.4) 19 (20.0) 0.773ƛ
Ischemic heart disease 52 (26.9) 28 (28.6) 24 (25.3) 0.605ƛ
Dyslipidemia 48 (24.9) 26 (26.5) 22 (23.2) 0.588ƛ
Chronic kidney disease 10 (5.2) 5 (5.1) 5 (5.3) 0.607£
  1. * sd = standard deviation α = Mann Whitney U test, # = independent t test, ƛ = Pearson Chi-Square test, £ = Fisher’s Exact test, Significant level P < 0.05.