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Table 1 Characteristics of healthy and COPD subjects classified by GOLD stage I-III*

From: Detection of air trapping in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by low frequency ultrasound

Characteristic Healthy
(n = 9)
GOLD 1
(n = 6)
GOLD 2
(n = 4)
GOLD 3
(n = 7)
age-yr 38.33 ± 9.72 52.83 ± 10.68 60.25 ± 9.50 59.14 ± 5.08
height-m 1.78 ± 0.06 1.78 ± 0.05 1.75 ± 0.09 1.75 ± 0.05
weight-kg 75.89 ± 11.20 81.50 ± 12.60 79.50 ± 14.27 77.29 ± 9.27
BMI-kg/m2 23.94 ± 3.07 25.62 ± 3.59 25.73 ± 2.36 25.33 ± 2.50
FEV1 - % pred. pre 101.97 ± 9.36 82.55 ± 11.73 60.75 ± 4.40 31.94 ± 3.02
FEV1/FVC-% pre 75.99 ± 2.80 56.98 ± 5.89 47.43 ± 7.06 28.78 ± 4.83
R-kPa · s/l 0.18 ± 0.07 0.24 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.16 0.76 ± 0.31
ITGV-l 3.38 ± 0.56 4.93 ± 0.49 4.65 ± 0.46 6.23 ± 0.44
ITGV-% pred. 100.68 ± 13.31 139.12 ± 14.87 131.28 ± 16.49 176.70 ± 14.37
RV-l 1.84 ± 0.16 3.24 ± 0.56 3.32 ± 0.41 4.75 ± 0.62
RV-% pred. 96.16 ± 11.37 142.3 ± 15.22 139.15 ± 16.48 201.59 ± 26.75
FEV1 - % pred. post 103.76 ± 9.37 89.47 ± 9.77 72.53 ± 3.40 37.54 ± 6.00
FEV1/FVC-% post 77.53 ± 2.64 60.45 ± 5.04 52.06 ± 7.54 29.32 ± 6.03
  1. * Plus-minus values are means ± SD. FEV1 and FEV1/FVC values are listed before (prae) and after (post) application of salbutamol. There were significant differences in age among healthy subjects and the three COPD groups, as assessed with the use of one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's post-hoc test (GOLD 1: p < 0.01, GOLD 2/GOLD3: p < 0.0001). In lung function testing, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, ITGV and RV were significantly different (p < 0.0001) between healthy and COPD subjects. Airway resistance (R) was significantly different between healthy subjects and GOLD 3 (p < 0.0001).