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Table 1 Risk factors for low HRQoL (AQ20 summary score ≥14) based on univariate and backwards-stepwise multivariate regression analysis

From: Co-morbidities are the key nominators of the health related quality of life in mild and moderate COPD

Patient characteristics N of patients analyzed % patients with poor HRQoL Crude OR 95%CI P-value Adjusted OR 95%CI P-value
Gender         
  Male 422 10.8 1.00      
  Female 225 15.4 1.51 0.97-2.35 NS 2.11 1.27-3.51 0.004
Age at recruitment         
  <60 years 215 13.5 1.00      
  61–68 years 274 14.2 1.06 0.64-1.79 NS    
  >69 years 250 9.6 0.68 0.38-1.21 NS    
FEV1 baseline % of predicted         
  >80 95 9.5 1.00      
  65–80 185 4.9 0.50 0.17-1.43 NS 0.54 0.18-1.63 0.27
  40–64 323 13.3 1.47 0.63-3.43 NS 2.48 0.99-5.95 0.05
  <40 136 22.9 2.84 1.19-6.79 0.02 5.17 2.03-13.17 0.001
Smoking cessation succeed         
  Yes 358 11.2 1.00      
  No 281 14.2 1.32 0.83-2.11 NS    
BMI units         
  <19 33 34.3 - - -    
  19–25 251 4.5 1.00      
  >25-30 275 37.6 0.64 0.37-1.07 NS    
  >30 173 23.6 0.95 0.54-1.64 NS    
Diabetes         
  No 628 11.9 1.00      
  Yes 111 15.3 1.33 0.75-2.36 NS    
Cardiovascular Disease1         
  No 532 13.3 1.00      
  Yes 207 10.1 0.73 0.44-1.23 NS    
Hypertension         
  No 439 12.3 1.00      
  Yes 300 12.7 1.03 0.66-1.61 NS    
Atrial Fibrillation       -2   
  No 474 14.1 1.00      
  Yes 31 29.0 2.49 1.10-5.63 0.03    
Diffusing capacity         
  Normal 221 11.8 1.00      
  Mild/moderately decrease 89 11.2 0.95 0.44-2.06 NS    
  Severe decrease 103 16.5 1.48 0.77-2.87 NS    
Cancer         
  No 695 12.4 1.00      
  Yes 44 13.6 1.12 0.46-2.72 NS    
Psychiatric conditions         
  No 493 9.9 1.00      
  Yes 240 17.1 1.87 1.19-2.92 0.006 1.99 1.21-3.29 0.007
Alcohol abuse         
  No 629 10.5 1.00      
  Yes 110 23.6 2.64 1.59-4.39 <0.001 3.02 1.65-5.51 0.001
  1. Odd Ratios with P values ≤0.05 are shown in bold.
  2. 1coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral artery disease, 2due to small number of tested patients not included to the multivariate analysis.