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Table 2 Risk factors for a low score on 15D (total score ≤0.65) based on univariate and backwards stepwise multivariate regression analysis

From: Co-morbidities are the key nominators of the health related quality of life in mild and moderate COPD

Patient characteristics N of patients analyzed % patients with poor HRQoL Crude OR 95%CI P-value Adjusted OR 95%CI P-value
Gender         
  Male 470 9.6 1.00      
  Female 261 11.1 1.18 0.72-1.93 NS    
Age at recruitment         
  <60 years 214 9.8 1.00      
  61–68 years 269 10.4 1.97 0.59-1.94 NS    
  >69 years 248 10.1 1.03 0.56-1.90 NS    
FEV1 baseline % of predicted         
  >80 94 8.2 1.00    1.00   
  65–80 184 7.5 0.91 0.33-1.39 NS 1.02 0.35-3.01 NS
  40–64 318 9.8 1.21 0.53-1.88 NS 1.41 0.52-3.80 NS
  <40 135 16.5 2.21 0.86-5.71 0.100 3.08 1.10-8.63 0.03
Smoking cessation succeed         
  Yes 355 7.9 1.00      
  No 278 12.6 1.68 1.00-2.84 0.05    
BMI units         
  <19 32 9.3 0.65 0.15-2.91 NS    
  19–25 248 6.2 1.00      
  >25-30 272 9.2 0.99 0.55-1.79 NS    
  >30 172 14.0 1.59 0.86-2.92 NS    
Diabetes         
  No 620 8.4 1.00    1.00   
  Yes 111 19.8 2.70 1.56-4.66 <0.001 2.12 1.07-4.22 0.03
Cardiovascular Disease1         
  No 526 9.1 1.00    1.00   
  Yes 205 12.7 1.45 0.87-2.40 NS 1.69 0.93-3.07 0.09
Hypertension         
  No 434 9.4 1.00      
  Yes 297 11.1 1.20 0.74-1.94 NS    
Atrial Fibrillation         
  No 468 11.1 1.00    -2   
  Yes 30 23.3 2.44 1.00-5.95 0.05    
Diffusing capacity         
  Normal 220 10.0 1.00      
  Mild/Moderately decrease 87 13.8 1.44 0.68-3.05 NS    
  Severe decrease 102 11.8 1.20 0.57-2.53 NS    
Cancer         
  No 687 10.0 1.00      
  Yes 44 11.4 1.15 0.44-3.01 NS    
Psychiatric conditions         
  No 488 5.9 1.00    1.00   
  Yes 237 18.1 3.51 2.13-5.78 <0.001 4.65 2.57-8.40 <0.001
Alcohol abuse         
  No 621 8.4 1.00    1.00   
  Yes 110 20.0 2.74 1.58-4.73 <0.001 2.33 1.21-4.49 0.007
  1. Odd Ratios with P values ≤0.05 are shown in bold.
  2. 1coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral artery disease, 2due to small number of tested patients not included to the multivariate analysis.