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Table 2 Pathological results

From: Possible role of the α7 nicotinic receptors in mediating nicotine’s effect on developing lung – implications in unexplained human perinatal death

  Sudden perinatal deaths Controls
  SIUDS SIDS Fetuses Newborns
n.45 n.15 n.16 n.8
Lung pathology
  Lung hypoplasia n.33 (73%)** n.5 (33%) n.0 (0%) n.2 (25%)
RAC (mean value)     
Age Reference value   - - -
32-35 gw 3.2±0.9 2.1±0.4 - - -
36-39 gw 3.6±0.9 2.7±0.2 - - -
1-3 pm 5.5±1.4 - 3.0±0.5 - 4.0
α7 nAChR strong immunopositivity n.22 (49%)** n.8 (53%)* n.0 (0%) n.3 (37%)
Brainstem pathology
Brainstem nuclei hypoplasia(1) n.38 (84%)** n.10 (67%)** n.0 (0%) n.3 (37%)
 Raphe nuclei 28 8 - -
 Parafacial nucleus 11 8 - -
 Kölliker-Fuse nucleus 11 - - -
 Pre-Bötzinger nucleus 12 6 - -
 Arcuate nucleus 12 6 - 3
  1. gw= gestational weeks; pm= postnatal months; RAC= radial alveolar count.
  2. (1)Individual victims may display any combination of brainstem alterations.
  3. Statistical significant differences (SIUDS and SIDS vs. corresponding controls): *= p<0.05; **= p< 0.01.