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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 4 groups of COPD patients based on their red hue of macrophages and AUC of sputum eosinophil %/year

From: COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils

  A (n = 10) High sputum eosinophils, low red hue B (n = 16) High sputum eosinophils, high red hue C (n = 19) Low sputum eosinophils, low red hue D (n = 58) Low sputum eosinophils, high red hue p value
Male, n (%) 6 (60) 13 (81.25) 8 (42.1) 42 (72.4) 0.06
Age (years)* 64 (3.3) 67 (2.3) 65 (2.4) 70 (1.2) 0.17
Body mass index (kg/m 2 ) 26 (23–28) 23 (20–26) 25 (23–33) 27 (23–30) 0.09
Pack years smoked 49 (36–58) 47 (25–66) 47 (34–60) 48 (32–64) 0.96
COPD duration (years) 4.7 (2.9-10) 8.5 (2.0-12) 4.8 (2.1-6.7) 4.9 (2.8-8.1) 0.67
Exacerbations/yr 0.7 (0–1.8) 0.8 (0.1-1.4) 1.2 (0–1.9) 0.8 (0–1.6) 0.51
ICS dose (BDP equivalent) (mcg/day) 2000 (2000–2000) 2000 (1000–2000) 2000 (800–2000) 1300 (800–2000) 0.26
FEV 1 % predicted, (%) 62 (43–75) 44 (32–58) 43 (26–67) 55 (42–71) 0.16
FEV 1 post bronchodilator (L) 1.7 (1.2-1.9) 1.1 (0.91-1.6) 0.87 (0.73-1.6) 1.4 (1–1.9) 0.13
Post FEV 1 /FVC (%)* 55 (5.4) 50 (3.3) 51 (4.2) 53 (1.6) 0.73
Reversibility, % 3.5 (-7.1- 8) 4.3 (1.5- 13) 4.5 (-2.2- 14) 1.5 (-4.4- 7.5) 0.33
GOLD 1, n (%) 1 (10) 1 (6) 5 (26) 8 (14) 0.38
GOLD 2, n (%) 7 (70) 6 (38) 3 (16) 26 (45) 0.02
GOLD 3, n (%) 0 (0) 7 (44) 4 (21) 19 (33) 0.02
GOLD 4, n (%) 2 (20) 2 (13) 7 (37) 5 (9) 0.05
Sputum TCC ×10 6 /g 1.2 (0.41-2) 5.3 (2.1-8.2) 1.6 (0.94-4.5) 3.4 (1.7-7.6) 0.002
Sputum neutrophils (%) 45 (6.3) 59 (6.1) 66 (5.3) 63 (2.7) 0.07
Sputum eosinophils (%) 9 (1.6-35) 14 (4.9-24) 0.5 (0.25-2.8) 1 (0.3-2.1) <0.0001
Sputum eosinophil AUC (%/yr) 6.8 (4.2-11) 5.9 (4.2-8.3) 0.5 (0.2-1.6) 0.78 (0.3-1.5) <0.0001
% of red hue of macrophages 2.3 (1.6-3.7) 27 (11–35) 3.4 (1.8-5.3) 16 (9.1-27) <0.0001
Blood neutrophils (×10 9 /L) 5.1 (3.5-5.8) 4.8 (3.8-5.9) 5.9 (4.7-6.3) 5.3 (3.9-6.1) 0.13
Blood eosinophils (×10 9 /L) 0.38 (0.24-0.46) 0.41 (0.26-0.56) 0.16 (0.09-0.25) 0.18 (0.12-0.30) <0.0001
CRP (mg/dl) 5 (2.5-5.3) 5 (<5-7) 5 (2.5-11) 5 (<5-11) 0.08
Bacterial colonisation, n (%) 1 (10) 1 (6) 8 (44) 12 (21) 0.04
CFU unit/ml** 6.2 (5.8-6.6) 6.1 (5.5-6.7) 6.6 (6.3-7) 6.2 (5.9-6.4) 0.19
MRC Dyspnoea Scale 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 3 (2.5-4.5) 3 (2–4) 0.82
SGRQ symptoms 61 (37–80) 65 (29–82) 73 (55–84) 62 (50–77) 0.34
SGRQ activity 76 (35–89) 73 (48–85) 73 (59–92) 67 (48–86) 0.55
SGRQ impacts 31 (16–58) 44 (20–66) 42 (29–47) 32 (23–51) 0.86
SGRQ total score 50 (30–67) 55 (32–71) 57 (49–65) 50 (37–65) 0.75
CRQ emotional functioning 4.7 (3.4-5.8) 4.3 (3.9-6.3) 4.4 (3.9-5.3) 4.5 (3.6-5.6) 0.83
CRQ fatigue 3.8 (3.4-4.9) 3.3 (2.8-5.3) 4.0 (2.3-4.8) 3.5 (2.5-4.8) 0.51
CRQ dyspnoea 4 (3–4.9) 3.4 (2.6-4.2) 3 (2.2-4) 3.4 (2.2-4.4) 0.28
CRQ mastery 5.4 (4.4-6.4) 5.0 (3.8-6.3) 4.0 (3.8-5.5) 5.3 (3.7-6.1) 0.63
CRQ total score 4.4 (3.7-5.2) 4.1 (3.4-4.9) 4.0 (3.1-4.6) 4.2 (3.1-5.0) 0.50
VAS cough (mm) 17 (10–43) 35 (14–52) 47 (18–62) 34 (13–54) 0.23
VAS dyspnoea (mm) 40 (4.8-59) 43 (32–81) 51 (35–62) 46 (22–65) 0.40
VAS sputum production (mm) 15 (4.5-42) 36 (19–52) 38 (93–66) 28 (12–63) 0.40
VAS sputum purulence (mm) 14 (2–61) 17 (1–45) 38 (15–62) 21 (9.5-41) 0.41
  1. Data presented as median (IQR) unless stated, *mean (SEM), **Geometric mean of Log data (95% CI). SEM: standard error of mean, CI: confidence interval. Abbreviations: AUC Area under the curve, BDP Beclometasone dipropionate, CFU Colony forming unit, CRP C-reactive Protein, CRQ Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, FEV 1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FVC Forced vital capacity, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, ICS Inhaled corticosteroids, MRC Medical Research Council, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, VAS Visual analogue score, yr Year.