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Table 3 Summary of glycopyrronium pharmacokinetic parameters (mITT population)

From: Randomized study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and bronchodilatory efficacy of a proprietary glycopyrronium metered-dose inhaler in study patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Parameter Arithmetic mean (CV%)
  GP MDI 14.4 μg GP MDI 28.4 μg GP MDI 57.6 μg GP MDI 115.2 μg
N 18 18 20 20
AUC0–24 (pg•h/mL) 34.5 (101.2) 120 (67.2) 202 (74.5) 498 (82.0)
AUC0–12 (pg•h/mL) 31.9 (88.8) 89.9 (57.7) 163 (70.6) 398 (79.8)
AUC12–24 (pg•h/mL) 4.34 (250.5)b 32.0 (147.0)d 41.0 (91.3)e 102 (100.9)f
AUC0-tlast (pg•h/mL) 30.7 (112.5) 113 (74.4) 196 (78.8) 491 (84.4)
AUC0-inf (pg•h/mL) 66.2 (72.2)c 127 (68.7)b 252 (70.8)e 598 (84.0)f
Cmax (pg/mL) 15.6 (72.0) 27.3 (51.5) 62.9 (72.3) 160 (73.8)
tmax a (h) 0.333 (0.0330, 0.350) 0.100 (0.0330, 0.383) 0.100 (0.0330, 0.917) 0.100 (0.0330, 0.933)
t1/2 (h) 5.09 (82.0)c 6.28 (62.6)b 8.76 (59.4)e 9.61 (36.6)f
CL/F (L/h) 416 (77.0)c 494 (89.6)b 510 (81.3)e 422 (75.6)f
Vz/F (L) 1995 (32.2)c 3320 (56.9)b 4627 (50.9)e 4697 (49.7)f
  1. aMedian (Min, Max); bn = 11; cn = 10; dn = 12; en = 19; fn = 16.
  2. AUCx-y = area under the concentration-time curve from time x to time y; CL/F = apparent oral clearance; Cmax = maximum plasma concentration; CV% = coefficient of variation; GP MDI = glycopyrronium metered-dose inhaler; t1/2 = apparent terminal elimination half-life; tmax = time to maximum concentration; Vz/F = apparent volume of distribution; mITT=modified intention to treat.