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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the asthma patients who had visited emergency clinic at least once during the follow-up compared to those who had not

From: Long-term smoking increases the need for acute care among asthma patients: a case control study

  Emergency visit Emergency visit
Clinical characteristics Yes No p-value 1
N of patients 117 227  
Proportion of women 65.8% 75.3% 0.06
Age at diagnosis (mean ± SD) 42.6 ± 16.2 43.7 ± 17.1 not significant
Age at recruitment (mean ± SD) 58.5 ± 11.8 54.7 ± 12.6 0.006
Duration of asthma, years (mean ± SD) 15.7 ± 14.3 11.1 ± 12.0 0.001
BMI (mean ± SD) 26.8 ± 5.5 26.5 ± 5.6 not significant
Smoking status (%)    
never 47.3% 68.9% 0.001(trend)
ex smoker 38.2% 27.1%  
current smoker 14.5% 4.0%  
Pack years (mean ± SD) 13.2 ± 19.7 8.4 ± 17.4 0.02
COPD as second diagnosis (%) 23.1% 8.4% <0.001
Baseline FEV1 percentage of expected (mean ± SD) 75.3 ± 21.1 86.6 ± 17.2 <0.001
Baseline FVC percentage of expected (mean ± SD) 82.9 ± 17.2 91.3 ± 14.6 <0.001
Baseline PEF percentage of expected (mean ± SD) 80.7 ± 20.3 94.0 ± 19.6 <0.001
Baseline FEV1/FVC ratio (mean ± SD) 73.4 ± 11.8 77.9 ± 10.5 0.001
HRQoL score (mean ± SD) 8.9 ± 4.7 6.3 ± 4.5 <0.001
Proportion (%)of patients with    
no co-morbidities 59.8 71.8 0.06
1 co-morbidity 33.3 23.3  
≥2 co-morbidities 6.8 4.8  
Proportion (%) of patients with co-existing    
Cardiovascular disease 2 16.2 9.3 0.06
Psychiatric disorder 3 21.4 16.3 not significant
Diabetes 3.4 5.7 not significant
Alcohol abuse 7.0 4.0 not significant
Chronic sinusitis 16.1 8.5 0.04
Allergic rhinitis 39.3 35.1 not significant
Allergic exzema 19.3 20.9 not significant
ASA intolerance 10.4 6.6 not significant
Nasal polyposis 10.3 8.0 not significant
  1. 1Continuous variables were compared using nonparametric Mann–Whitney U-test and categorical variables using the Chi-Square test.
  2. 2Included coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
  3. 3Medication used.