Improvement of nuclear condensation and fragmentation (A), inhibition of caspase-3 activation (B) and enhancement of cell viability (C and D) by astragalin in H
-exposed or LPS-exposed BEAS-2B cells. Cells were exposed to 20 μM H2O2 for 24 h or 2 μg/ml LPS for 8 h in the absence and presence of 1–20 μM astragalin, and DAPI staining or MTT assay was subsequently performed. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation were observed with fluorescence microscopy. Representative microphotographs were obtained from three independent experiments. The MTT data for viability are mean ± SEM (n = 5, cell viability of untreated controls = 100%). Cell lysates were prepared for Western blot analysis with a primary antibody against cleaved caspase-3. β-Actin protein was used as an internal control. The bar graphs (mean ± SEM, n = 3-4) represent quantitative results of the upper bands obtained from a densitometer. Means not sharing a common superscript refer to significant different at P < 0.05.