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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the 171 cases of community-acquired pneumonia included in the study

From: Inflammatory response in mixed viral-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia

Characteristic   Bacterial n = 59 Viral n = 66 Mixed n = 46 p
Age, years   72 (14) 76 (17) 72 (20) NS
>65 years   42 (70%) 50 (75.76%) 32 (68.09%) NS
Male sex   42 (70%) 40 (60.61%) 23 (48.94%) NS
Smoking status Yes 16 (27.12%) 11 (16.67%) 9 (19.15%) NS
  No 17 (28.81%) 33 (50%) 22 (46.81%) NS
  Ex-smoker 26 (44.07%) 22 (33.33%) 16 (34.04%) NS
Previous antibiotic   12 (20%) 16 (24.24%) 6 (12.77%) NS
Concomitant illnesses Neoplastic disease (not active) 7 (11.67%) 10 (15.15%) 5 (10.64%) NS
  Heart disease 25 (41.67%) 23 (34.85%) 14 (29.79%) NS
  Cerebrovascular disease 11 (18.33%) 14 (21.21%) 7 (14.89%) NS
  COPD 21 (35%) 19 (28.79%) 12 (25.53%) NS
  Liver disease 2 (3.33%) 2 (3.03%) 1 (2.13%) NS
  Renal disease 6 (10%) 9 (13.64%) 5 (10.64%) NS
  Diabetes mellitus 11 (18.33%) 15 (22.73%) 6 (12.77%) NS
  Bronchiectasis 5 (8.33%) 1 (1.52%) 2 (4.26%) NS
  No first pneumonia 20 (33.33%) 13 (19.7%) 12 (25.53%) NS
Clinical findings Duration of symptoms prior to enrolment (mean no. of days) 3 3,75 3,25 NS
  Altered mental status 5 (8.33%) 10 (15.15%) 2 (4.26%) NS
  Pulse > 125/min 9 (15%) 4 (6.06%) 2 (4.26%) NS
  Respiratory rate > 30/min 16 (26.67%) 10 (15.15%) 5 (10.64%) NS
  Systolic BP < 90 mmHg or diastolic BP < 60 mmHg 11 (18.33%) 6 (9.09%) 5 (10.64%) NS
  Temperature < 35°C or > 40°C 3 (5%) 1 (1.52%) 2 (4.26%) NS
Radiographic findings Unilobar involvement 51 (86.44%) 58 (89.23%) 39 (82.98%) NS
  Multilobar/bilateral involvement 8 (13.66%) 8 (10.76%) 7 (17.02%) NS
  Pleural effusion 15 (25%) 11 (16.67%) 12 (25.53%) NS
PSI Mean PSI score 101.5 106 101 NS
  Class 1-3 22 (37.3%) 23 (34.8%) 19 (41.3%) NS
  Class 2-5 37 (62.7%) 43 (65.2%) 27 (58.7%)  
CURB65 0-1 23 (39%) 24 (36.4%) 19 (41.3%) NS
  2-5 36 (61%) 42 (63.6%) 27 (58.7%)  
Symptoms Fever 45 (77.59%) 46 (71.88%) 35 (76.09%) NS
  Cough 44 (73.33%) 53 (79.1%) 39 (82.98%) NS
  Expectoration 40 (67.8%) 47 (73.44%) 35 (77.78%) NS
  Dyspnea 39 (67.24%) 48 (73.85%) 31 (67.39%) NS
  Pleuritic pain 27 (46.55%) 23 (37.1%) 28 (63.64%) 0.026
  Digestive 9 (15.52%) 8 (12.9%) 12 (26.09%) NS
  Headache 5 (20%) 7 (22.58%) 8 (42.11%) NS
  Myalgia 4 (16.67%) 8 (27.59%) 7 (36.84%) NS