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Table 3 In-hospital course and outcomes of patients hospitalized with pneumonia by Streptococcus pneumoniae by blood culture result

From: Pneumococcal pneumonia: differences according to blood culture results

In-hospital evolution and outcomes Positive blood culture (N = 399) Negative blood culture (N = 492) Pvalue Odds ratio (95% CI)
In-hospital course     
Admission to intensive care unit 92 (23.1) 101 (20.5) 0.4 1.2 (0.8 – 1.6)
Need for mechanical ventilation 42 (10.5) 27 (5.5) 0.005 2 (1.2 – 3.4)
Septic shock* 53 (14.9) 33 (6.7) 0.0001 2.4 (1.5 – 3.8)
Treatment failure 72 (18.2) 59 (12.1) 0.01 1.6 (1.1 – 2.3)
Severe sepsis 185 (46.4) 203 (41.3) 0.1 1.2 (0.9 – 1.6)
Outcomes     
In-hospital mortality 35 (8.8) 22 (4.5) 0.009 2.1 (1.2 – 3.6)
15-day mortality 33 (8.3) 14 (2.9) 0.0003 3.1 (1.6 – 5.8)
30-day mortality 37 (9.3) 18 (3.7) 0.0005 2.7 (1.5 – 4.8)
30-day readmission 10 (3.3) 27 (5.6) 0.1 0.6 (0.3 – 1.2)
Length of hospital stay (days)     
  Mean (SD) 10 (13.7) 7 (5.5) 0.02 1.2 (1.04 – 1.3)
  Median (IRQ) 6 (4 – 10) 6 (4 – 8) 0.02  
  >3 days 295 (81) 373 (79.4) 0.5 1.1 (0.8 – 1.6)
  1. SD, standard deviation; CI, Confidence interval; IRQ, Interquartile range.
  2. Data are given as number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated. Percentages exclude patients with missing data. Treatment failure is defined in the text.
  3. *Septic shock is defined as arterial systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg and the need for vasopressors for a minimum of 4 hours.
  4. Deaths are excluded.
  5. For the comparison of length of hospital stay as a continuous variable, the general linear model was used, and due to the skewed distribution of length of stay, the logarithmic transformation was applied. Hence, data are given as the exponential of the estimated beta parameter, indicating how many times longer the length of stay was among blood culture-positive than culture-negative patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae.