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Table 5 Annual rate of severe exacerbations (95% confidence interval), per GOLD stage

From: Does the 2013 GOLD classification improve the ability to predict lung function decline, exacerbations and mortality: a post-hoc analysis of the 4-year UPLIFT trial

Old stage P-value* New stage P-value* Substage P-value*
2 0.18 (0.16 - 0.20) - A 0.08 (0.05 – 0.12) - C1 0.18 (0.12 – 0.25) -
3 0.39 (0.36 - 0.42) <0.001 B 0.14 (0.12 – 0.17) <0.001 C2 0.17 (0.08 – 0.28) 0.71
4 0.54 (0.46 - 0.62) <0.001 C 0.21 (0.16 – 0.27) <0.001 C3 0.37 (0.18 – 0.57) 0.001
    D 0.40 (0.37 – 0.43) <0.001 D1 0.30 (0.27 – 0.33) -
       D2 0.30 (0.26 – 0.36) 0.85
       D3 0.59 (0.53 – 0.65) <0.001
AIC 16,019.57    15,859.22    15,634.93  
  1. *Wald test of difference with category immediately above. Overall Wald test of equal rates across stages: p < 0.001 for all models. C1/D1: classified in C/D because of lung function impairment; C2/D2: in C/D because of exacerbation history; C3/D3: because of lung function and exacerbation history.