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Table 1 Indications and contraindications for NIV in acute care[4, 16, 17, 35]

From: Timing of noninvasive ventilation failure: causes, risk factors, and potential remedies

Indications:
A- Gas exchange:
 • Acute or acute on chronic ventilator failure (best indication), PaCO2 > 45 mmHg
 • Ph < 7.35
 • Hypoxemia (use with caution), PaO2/FIO2 ratio < 200
B- Bedside observations:
 • Increased dyspnea- moderate to severe
 • Tachypnoea (24 breaths per minute in obstructive, >30 per minute in restrictive)
 • Signs of increased work of breathing, accessory muscle use, and abdominal paradox
Absolute contraindications:
 • Cardiac or respiratory arrest
 • Unable to fit mask
Relative contraindications:
 • Non-respiratory organ failure (severe encephalopathy with GCS < 10, severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding, hemodynamic instability or unstable cardiac arrthythmia)
 • Inability to cooperate/protect the airway
 • Inability to clear respiratory secretions
 • High risk of aspiration
 • Recent facial surgery, trauma, or deformity
 • Upper airway obstruction
  1. NIV: Noninvasive ventilation, GCS: Glasgow coma scale.