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Table 3 Prevalence (with 95% confidence intervals) of respiratory symptoms at baseline in total baseline population, population at 10-yrs follow-up and population at 20-yrs follow-up, and differences between these groups given as ratios of baseline symptom prevalence (with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals) in population at 10-yrs follow-up over total baseline population, and in population at 20-yrs follow-up over total baseline population a

From: Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies – patterns and implications

   Baseline population (95%CI) 10-yrs follow-up population (95%CI) Ratio of prevalences (95%CI) b 20-yrs follow-up population (95%CI) Ratio of prevalences (95%CI) b
Wheeze RHINE 22.2% (20.4, 21.6) 21.5% (19.9, 21.3) 0.97 (0.95, 0.99) 20.5% (19.0, 20.6) 0.92 (0.90, 0.95)
  Italian ECRHS 10.0% (9.0, 10.5) 10.2% (8.9, 10.8) 1.02 (0.96, 1.07) 10.1% (8.0, 11.2) 1.01 (0.87, 1.14)
  ISAYA 15.1% (12.4, 14.6) 13.7% (11.1, 13.8) 0.91 (0.84, 0.98) - -
Asthma RHINE 4.7% (4.3, 5.0) 4.8% (4.4, 5.2) 1.02 (0.99, 1.05) 4.6% (4.3, 5.1) 0.98 (0.92, 1.03)
  Italian ECRHS 4.2% (3.6, 4.6) 4.2% (3.5, 4.7) 1.00 (0.91, 1.09) 3.8% (2.5, 4.5) 0.90 (0.67, 1.10)
  ISAYA 5.3% (4.4, 5.8) 5.0% (3.8, 5.6) 0.94 (0.83, 1.07) - -
Rhinitis RHINE 19.3% (19.3, 20.5) 19.8% (19.7, 21.1) 1.03 (1.01, 1.04) 19.9% (19.9, 21.5) 1.03 (1.00, 1.06)
  Italian ECRHS 15.9% (14.8, 16.6) 15.8% (14.4, 16.7) 0.99 (0.95, 1.03) 18.2% (15.8, 20.0) 1.14 (1.02, 1.26)
  ISAYA 20.7% (19.3, 21.8) 21.1% (19.3, 22.7) 1.02 (0.96, 1.08) - -
  1. aTotal baseline population: participants in 1989–92 in RHINE, 1991–93 in Italian ECRHS, 1998–2000 in ISAYA. 10-yrs follow up population: participants in 1999-2000 in RHINE and 1998–2000 in Italian ECRHS, 2008–09 in ISAYA. 20-yrs follow-up population: participants in 2010-12 in RHINE, 2008–09 in Italian ECRHS.
  2. bCorrected for inter-dependency between long-term participants and total baseline participants, by using a non-parametric bootstrap method. Significant differences between long-term participants and all baseline participants are marked in bold font.