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Table 1 Comparison of cohort by type of ventilatory support

From: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality in elderly immunocompromised patients hospitalized with pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

Variables Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (N = 717) Invasive mechanical ventilation (N = 1,229) p-value
N (%) N (%)
Age at admission, mean (SD) 75.8 (6.2) 75.3 (6.0) 0.07
Men 706 (98.5) 1216 (98.9) 0.36
Smoker 332 (46.3) 492 (40.0) 0.01
Alcohol abuse 30 (4.2) 64 (5.2) 0.31
Prior admission 203 (28.3) 409 (33.3) 0.02
Guideline concordant antibiotics 630 (87.9) 889 (72.3) <0.01
Black 67 (9.3) 147 (12.0) 0.08
White 601 (83.8) 1014 (82.5) 0.46
Hispanic 24 (3.4) 93 (7.6) <0.01
Married 393 (54.8) 633 (51.5) 0.16
VA priority group   0.97
 1 137 (19.1) 229 (18.7)  
 2–6 509 (71.0) 876 (71.3)
 7–8 71 (9.9) 123 (10.0)
ICU admission 425 (59.3) 1124 (91.5) <0.01
Myocardial infarction 45 (6.3) 116 (9.4) 0.02
Congestive heart failure 258 (36.0) 387 (31.5) 0.04
Peripheral vascular disease 108 (15.1) 194 (15.8) 0.67
Cerebrovascular disease 93 (13.0) 181 (14.7) 0.28
Dementia 13 (1.8) 34 (2.8) 0.19
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 590 (82.3) 821 (66.8) <0.01
Rheumatologic disease 23 (3.2) 61 (5.0) 0.07
Peptic ulcer disease 24 (3.4) 44 (3.6) 0.79
Severe liver disease 5 (0.7) 17 (1.4) 0.19
Diabetes 257 (35.8) 411 (33.4) 0.28
Diabetes with complications 76 (10.6) 119 (9.7) 0.52
Chronic renal disease 85 (11.9) 174 (14.2) 0.15
Hemi/Paraplegia 10 (1.4) 17 (1.4) 0.98
Any prior malignancy 183 (25.5) 319 (26.0) 0.83
Metastatic solid tumor 29 (4.0) 56 (4.6) 0.59
Illicit drug abuse 9 (1.3) 15 (1.2) 0.95
Nursing home residence 10 (1.4) 7 (0.6) 0.06
Vasopressor use 50 (7.0) 499 (40.6) <0.01
Cardiovascular drug count 90 days prior, mean (SD) 2.0 (1.6) 1.9 (1.6) 0.06
Diabetes drug count 90 days prior, mean (SD) 0.4 (0.8) 0.4 (0.7) 0.04
Inhaled corticosteroids drug count 90 days prior mean (SD) 0.75 (1.0) 0.62 (0.98) 0.01
Pulmonary drug count 90 days prior mean (SD) 2.4 (2.2) 2.0 (2.2) <0.01
Number of primary care clinical visits 1 year prior, mean (SD) 5.0 (3.8) 5.0 (4.4) 0.88
Number of emergency department clinic visits 1 year prior, mean (SD) 1.3 (3.6) 1.4 (2.8) 0.52
Reason for immunosuppression  
 Taking immunosuppressive drugs 611 (85.2) 961 (78.2) <0.01
 Leukemia/lymphoma/multiple myeloma 42 (5.9) 121 (9.9) <0.01
 Taking oral corticosteroids 362 (50.5) 649 (52.8) 0.32
 AIDS 3 (0.4) 3 (0.2) 0.68