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Table 1 Baseline comparison between the study groups

From: Efficacy of a multifactorial intervention on therapeutic adherence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomized controlled trial

Variables (measure) CG IG p
Adherence (%) 41.9 40.3 0.843*
Sex (% males) 91.9% 91.7% 0.96*
Age (years) 68.59 (66.4-70.78) 69.57 (67.74-71.4) 0.509**
Low Educational Level 81% 75% 0.683*
Current Smoking (%) 33.8% 30.6% 0.676*
Smoking history (Pack-years) 58.67 (48.68-68.66) 67.07 (55.88-78.26) 0.275**
Cigarettes/day 21.32 (19.3-23.34) 19.45 (15.87-23.03) 0.683**
BMI (Kg/m2) 31.42 (27.47-35.37) 30.11 (29.06-31.16) 0.538**
Comorbidity    
• HBP (%) 40 58,3 0.032*
• DM (%) 25.7 38.9 0.088*
• OA (%) 33.8 29.2 0.548*
Diagnosis time (years) 4.27 (3.57-4.97) 4.61 (3.63-5.59) 0.585**
Pattern (%)    0.673*
• Obstructive 47.8 54.9
• Restrictive 13 12.7
• Mixed 39.1 32.4
Severity (%)    0.630*
• Mild 34.8 40.6
• Moderate 43,5 43,5
• Severe 21.7 15.9
Exacerbations per years 0.82 (0.59-1.05) 0.92 (0.67-1.17) 0.642**
Visits HC due COPD 1.56 (1.15-1.97) 2.04 (1.54-2.54) 0.162**
Treatment (%)    
• Anticholinergic 77 77.8 0.914*
• Beta-2 adrenergic 79.7 80.6 0.900*
• Inhaled corticosteroids 74.3 66.7 0.310*
• Xanthine 6.8 9.7 0.514*
Number of Devices (%)    0.913*
• 1 29.7% 30.6%
• 2/more 70.3% 69.4%
SGRQ (scores)    
Total 39.53 (35,42-43.64) 35.32 (31.35-39.29) 0.152**
• Activity 52.05 (48.12-57.98) 50.62 (45.83-55.4) 0.49**
• Symptoms 42.74 (38.14-47.34) 39.62 (35.21-44.03) 0.341**
• Impact 30.66 (26.45-34.87) 25.46 (21.41-29.51) 0.085**
EuroQoL5D-3 L (%without problem)    
• Mobility 54.1 59.7 0.489*
• Self-care 82.4 86.1 0.542*
• Perform main, family or leisure activities 77 80.6 0.601*
• Anxious or depressed 40.5 50 0.099*
• Pain or discomfort 64.9 70.8 0.207*
  1. Quantitative variables: mean (CI 95%); Qualitative variables: %.
  2. CG: control group; IG: intervention group; BMI: body mass index; HBP: high blood pressure; DM: diabetes mellitus; OA: osteoarthritis HC: health center; SGRQ: Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire.
  3. *ji-schare test; **ANOVA test.