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Table 1 Patient and physiological characteristics of included patients

From: Exhaled breath profiling for diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome

   Control (n = 92) ARDS (n = 58) Pneumonia (11) CPE (19) P–value
Age (years) 64 (50–75) 57 (54–78) 56 (49–62) 71 (63–79) 0.106
Male (yes) 51 (55) 30 (52) 8 (89) 11 (73) 0.327
APACHE II   20 (15–26) 23 (19–29) 20 (16–24) 23 (20–28) 0.013
SAPS II   48 (37–60) 55 (43–67) 49 (37–55) 57 (46–63) 0.013
Admission type Medical 56 (62) 41 (72) 7 (64) 16 (89) 0.373
Elective surgery 5 (6) 2 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Emergency surgery 29 (32) 14 (25) 2 (11) 4 (36)
Comorbidities Asthma 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (5) 0.606
COPD 8 (9) 6 (10) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.773
Other respiratory 5 (5) 2 (3) 1 (9) 1 (5) 0.290
Malignancy 7 (7) 13 (22) 1 (9) 1 (5) 0.090
DM 10 (11) 10 (17) 0 (0) 3 (16) 0.682
Pmax (cmH 2 O) 16 (11–20) 21 (15–30) 16 (15–24) 24 (19–29) < 0.001
PEEP (cmH 2 O) 5 (5–6) 8 (5–10) 5 (5–8.5) 8 (5–10) < 0.001
Tidal volume (ml) 456 (393–545) 426 (380–494) 482 (451–579) 410 (373–506) 0.345
Minute volume (l/min) 8.5 (7.4–9.1) 11.0 (9.1–13.3) 11.3 (9.8–12.6) 9.6 (7.9–12.1) < 0.001
PaCO2 (kPa) 5.1 (4.6–5.7) 5.4 (4.6–5.9) 4.7 (4.1–5.6) 4.8 (4.6–5.6) 0.452
PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg/%) 311 (234–398) 212 (165–257) 304 (241–447) 242 (176–264) < 0.001
Leucocytes 10 9 /ml 12.9 (10.2–18.2) 13.4 (8.7–19.4) 14.1 (13.6–15.1) 18.0 (16.0–18.9) 0.053
CRP mg/ml 65 (21–129) 144 (74–237) 135 (62–177) 66 (18–110) 0.002
ICU Mortality   16 (18) 20 (35) 0 (0) 6 (33) 0.023
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as median (25th to 75th percentile). Categorical variables are expressed as number (percentage). Differences between groups are tested using Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance or Chi–square test (with Yates’ correction if necessary) and P–values are reported.
  2. APACHE II: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; CPE: cardiogenic pulmonary edema; PEEP: Positive end–expiratory pressure; Pmax: maximal inspiratory pressure; SAPS: Simplified Acute Physiology Score.