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Table 5 Hazard ratios (HRs) of asthma patients by drug used compared to patients without drug use

From: Bronchial asthma is associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease

Variables n (%) HR (95% CI) HR* (95% CI) HR** (95% CI) With steroid HR*** (95% CI) Without steroid HR**** (95% CI)
Steroid       
Yes (n = 19720) 1038 (5.3%) 0.68 (0.62-0.73) 0.56 (0.52-0.61) N/A N/A N/A
No (n = 15366) 1158 (7.5%)      
Expectorant       
Yes (n = 6818) 339 (5.0%) 0.74 (0.66-0.83) 0.59 (0.53-0.67) 0.63 (0.54-0.74) 0.65 (0.55-0.78) 0.64 (0.57-0.72)
No (n = 28268) 1857 (6.6%)      
Bronchodilators       
Yes (n = 19933) 1157 (5.8%) 0.84 (0.77-0.91) 0.67 (0.61-0.72) 0.78 (0.68-0.89) 0.78 (0.69-0.88) 0.78 (0.71-0.85)
No (n = 15153) 1039 (6.9%)      
Anti-muscarinic agents       
Yes (n = 4298) 264 (6.1%) 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 0.72 (0.63-0.82) 0.87 (0.75-1.01) 0.86 (0.64-1.14) 0.87 (0.76-0.99)
No (n = 30788) 1932 (6.3%)      
Airway smooth relaxant       
Yes (n = 19222) 1245 (6.5%) 1.07 (0.99-1.17) 0.75 (0.69-0.82) 0.88 (0.77-1.02) 0.91 (0.81-1.03) 0.90 (0.82-0.99)
No (n = 15864) 951 (6.0%)      
Leukotriene receptor antagonist       
Yes (n = 1432) 46 (3.2%) 0.48 (0.36-0.65) 0.59 (0.44-0.79) 0.72 (0.52-1.00) 0.62 (0.32-1.20) 0.69 (0.52-0.93)
No (n = 33654) 2150 (6.4%)      
  1. Note: HR*, each factor was adjusted for diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease.
  2. CI, confidence interval; n (%), number of participants with CKD and% of participants.
  3. p < 0.05 for comparison between patients with asthma and without asthma; p < 0.001 for comparison between patient with asthma and without asthma.
  4. Hazard ratios (HRs) of asthma patients by drug used. In each drug, the HR was compared with patients without drug. (a) Crude HR (95% CI) for each drug. (b) HR *(95% CI) for each drug, adjusted for co-morbidities. (c) Patients with steroid HR **(95% CI) for each drug, adjusted for co-morbidities. (d) Patients without steroid use HR ***(95% CI) for each drug, adjusted for co-morbidities. (e) HR **** (95% CI) for each drug, adjusted for co-morbidities and steroid use.