Skip to main content

Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for VAP (mean ± SD)

From: Costs and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Turkish University Hospital's Intensive Care Unit: A case-control study

    Bivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Risk factors VAP Group Control Group OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Respiratory failure 34 (91.9 %) 12 (20.0 %) 45.3 (11.8–173.0) <0.0001 11.8 (2.2–62.5) 0.004
Coma (GCS < 9) 23 (62.2 %) 3 (5.0 %) 31.2 (8.2–118.9) <0.0001 17.2(2.7–107.7) 0.002
Depressed consciousness 25 (67.6 %) 12 (20.0 %) 29.4 (10.9–58.7) <0.0001 8.8 (2.9–62.5) 0.02
Enteral feeding 30 (81.1 %) 14 (23.3 %) 14.1 (5.1–38.9) <0.0001 5.3 (1.0–27.3) 0.044
Length of stay 9.4 ± 7.1 3.5 ± 2.3   <0.0001 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 0.023
APACHE II scores 22.9 ± 5.2 15.3 ± 7.0   <0.0001 -- NS
Nasogastric tubing 28 (75.7 %) 21 (35.0 %) 5.8 (2.3–14.5) 0.001 -- NS
CVC 32 (86.5 %) 41 (68.3 %) 3.0 1.0–7.3) 0.044 -- NS
Diabetes mellitus 5 (13.5 %) 2 (3.3 %) 4.5 (0.8–24.7) NS   
Trauma 1 (2.7 %) 2 (3.3 %) 0.8 (0.1–9.2) NS   
Blood transfusion 14 (37.8 %) 21 (35.0 %) 1.1 (0.4–2.6) NS   
TPN 9 (24.3 %) 15 (25.0 %) 1.0 (0.4–2.5) NS   
Corticosteroids 2 (5.4 %) 5 (8.3 %) 0.6 (0.1–3.4) NS   
H2 receptor antagonists 37 (100.0 %) 58 (96.7 %) - NS   
Urinary catheterization 37 (100.0 %) 57 (95.0 %) -- NS   
PVC 30 (81.1 %) 45 (75.0 %) 1.4 (0.6–3.9) NS   
Surgical drains 8 (21.6 %) 11 (18.3 %) 1.2 (0.4–3.4) NS   
Tracheostomy 2 (5.4 %) 1 (1.7 %) 3.3 (0.3–38.6) NS   
Arterial cannulation 3 (8.1 %) -- -- NS   
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD and number of patients (%). Possible risk factors for VAP were assessed with bivariate analysis. All of the risk factors which were found significant with bivariate analysis were included in a model, and multiple logistic regression analysis was done. Abbreviations: OR: odds ratio, CI: confidence interval, PVC: peripheral venous catheter, CVC: central venous catheterization, TPN: total parenteral nutrition.