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Table 2 Lung function, pulse oximetry and Borg dyspnea score during sputum induction, according to COPD severity.

From: Dyspnea assessment and adverse events during sputum induction in COPD

  Overall COPD severity (GOLD stages)  
   Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV  
  n = 65 n = 5 n = 24 n = 22 n = 14  
Median (IQR) change*       p-value
Borg 1.5 (0, -2) 0 (0, 1) 1 (0, 1) 1.5 (0, 2) 1.5 (0, 3) 0.02
SpO 2 % -1 (0, -2) -0 (0, 0) -1 (0, -1.5) -1.5 (0, -3) -2.5 (-1.5, -3) 0.001
Heart rate 25 (10, 33) 15 (8, 22) 17 (10, 25) 21 (12, 29) 32(10, 45) 0.09
FEV 1 -9.5 (-3, -15) -11 (-3, -17) -5 (0,-8) -12 (-3, -17) -9 (-3, -12) 0.32
  1. * change from the post-bronchodilation baseline value