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Table 3 MMP, TIMP, MMP-9 activity and molar ratio in patients with HAP and control patients.

From: Hospital acquired pneumonia with high-risk bacteria is associated with increased pulmonary matrix metalloproteinase activity

  Mean ± SEM p- value
MMP-8 (ng/ml)    
Control group (n = 18) 24 (± 7) HAP vs. control 0.346
All HAP patients (n = 37) 435 (± 131)   
HAP subgroups    
• Bacteria   high vs. low risk 0.002
    high-risk bacteria (n = 17) 750 (± 245) high vs. control 0.0007
    low-risk bacteria (n = 20) 167 (± 93) low vs. control 0.198
• invasive ventilation    
    ventilated (n = 15) 891 (± 266) vent. vs. not vent. <0.0001
    not ventilated (n = 22) 124 (± 77)   
MMP-9 (ng/ml)    
Control group (n = 18) 50 (± 17)* HAP vs. control 0.059
All HAP patients (n = 37) 657 (± 157)*   
HAP subgroups    
• Bacteria   high vs. low risk <0.0001
    high-risk bacteria (n = 17) 1168 (± 266)** high vs. control <0.0001
    low-risk bacteria (n = 20) 224 (± 119)** low vs. control 0.497
• invasive ventilation    
    ventilated (n = 15) 1309 (± 266)*** vent. vs. not vent. <0.0001
    not ventilated (n = 22) 213 (± 131)***   
MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity (%)    
Control group (n = 18) 34 (± 11)* HAP vs. control 0.0001
All HAP patients (n = 37) 149 (± 41)*   
HAP subgroups    
• Bacteria   high vs. low risk 0.0001
    high-risk bacteria (n = 17) 325 (± 106)** high vs. control <0.0001
    low-risk bacteria (n = 20) 67 (± 14)** low vs. control 0.007
• invasive ventilation    
    ventilated (n = 15) 197 (± 40)*** vent. vs. not vent. 0.0024
    not ventilated (n = 22) 118 (± 63)***   
TIMP-1 (ng/ml)    
Control group (n = 18) 410 (± 80)* HAP vs. control 0.275
All HAP patients (n = 37) 648 (± 164)*   
HAP subgroups    
• Bacteria   high vs. low risk 0.0039
    high-risk bacteria (n = 17) 983 (± 285)** high vs. control 0.290
    low-risk bacteria (n = 20) 364 (± 165)** low vs. control 0.005
• invasive ventilation    
    ventilated (n = 15) 1309 (± 261)*** vent. vs. not vent. <0.0001
    not ventilated (n = 22) 132 (± 40)***   
MMP-9/TIMP-1 molar ratio    
Control group (n = 18) 0.04 (± 0.02)* HAP vs. control <0.0001
All HAP patients (n = 37) 0.43 (± 0.12)*   
HAP subgroups    
• Bacteria   high vs. low risk 0.0002
    high-risk bacteria (n = 17) 0.66 (± 0.17)** high vs. control <0.0001
    low-risk bacteria (n = 20) 0.24 (± 0.15)** low vs. control 0.0028
• invasive ventilation    
    ventilated (n = 15) 0.66 (± 0.23)*** vent. vs. not vent. 0.0046
    not ventilated (n = 22) 0.28 (± 0.12)***   
  1. Subgroups according to high/low-risk bacteria and artificial ventilation.