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Table 2 Stimulants used and cytokines measured in the mononuclear cell assays.

From: The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

Innate Immune Responses Adaptive Immune Responses
Stimulants Cytokines Stimulants Cytokines
Lipopolysaccharide IFN-α Phytohemagglutinin IFN-γ
Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid IFN-γ Cockroach extract IL-10
Peptidoglycan IL-10 Dust mite (D. pteronyssinus) IL-13
CpG IL-12p40 extract IL-4
Respiratory syncytial virus TNF-α Tetanus toxoid IL-5
Rhinovirus* IL-8 CD3 + CD28 Mab*  
Medium alone   Medium alone  
  1. * Stimulation not conducted on cells from the umbilical cord samples
  2. † Not measured in umbilical cord samples