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Table 1 Comparison of parents' responses to core asthma symptoms, additional respiratory symptoms and bakhour use by region

From: Home exposure to Arabian incense (bakhour) and asthma symptoms in children: a community survey in two regions in Oman

  Muscat
n = 1241
S. Sharqiyah
n = 1200
P-value
Core asthma symptoms    
12-month prevalence of:    
   ▪ Any wheeze 9.3 15.8 <0.001
   ▪ Exercise induced wheeze 6.4 10.1 0.001
   ▪ Night cough in absence of cold 17.2 23.4 <0.001
   ▪ 1–3 wheezing episodes 4.8 10.4 <0.001
   ▪ More than 3 wheezing episodes 2.1 2.3 0.689
   ▪ Sleep disturbance one night or more/week 1.5 0.5 0.034
   ▪ Speech limiting wheeze 1.5 1.2 0.441
Ever had asthma 12.1 21.3 <0.001
Current asthma 10.7 20.3 <0.001
Additional Respiratory symptoms    
12-month prevalence of:    
   ▪ Wheeze during cold or flu 6.5 15.2 <0.001
   ▪ Cough and phlegm with colds 18.0 29.2 <0.001
   ▪ Cough and phlegm without colds 8.0 14.8 <0.001
Ever woken up with shortness of breath 7.9 13.8 <0.001
Ever woke up with chest tightness 5.2 8.6 0.001
Atopy    
   ▪ Ever had hay fever 9.3 15.3 <0.001
   ▪ Ever had eczema 10.7 12.8 0.122
   ▪ Father has asthma, hay fever or eczema 12.9 16.9 0.033
   ▪ Mother has asthma, hay fever or eczema 16.9 19.8 0.071
Bakhour use at home 91.5 91.0 0.689
Frequency of use per week    
   ▪ Never or rarely 19.0 19.0 1.000
   ▪ 1–2 times/week 27.2 17.8 <0.001
   ▪ >2 times/week 53.8 63.2 <0.001
Bakhour use in presence of child 60.5 54.8 <0.001
Bakhour use in the child room 61.2 54.3 0.004
Child affected by bakhour 19.3 29.5 0.001