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Table 2 Crude and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) of the effect of current asthma and other variables on reporting that the child is affected by exposure to bakhour using logistic regression analysis.

From: Home exposure to Arabian incense (bakhour) and asthma symptoms in children: a community survey in two regions in Oman

  Number (%) of total sample (%) affected by bakhour Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR# (95% CI)
Current asthma     
   ▪ No 2065 (84.6) 43.6 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 376 (15.4) 56.4 2.32 (1.84–2.93)* 2.55 (1.97–3.31)*
Bakhour use per week     
   ▪ Never or rarely 463 (19.0) 19.7 1.00 1.00
   ▪ 1–2 times/week 549 (22.5) 22.8 1.21 (0.89–1.63) 2.28 (1.63–3.21)*
   ▪ >2 times/week 1423 (58.4) 26.6 1.48 (1.14–1.91)* 3.01 (2.23–4.06)*
Bakhour use in presence of child     
   ▪ No 1032 (42.3) 35.1 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 1409 (57.7) 16.5 0.37 (0.30–0.44)* 0.51 (0.40–0.65)*
Bakhour use in the child room     
   ▪ No 1030 (42.2) 36.4 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 1411 (57.8) 15.5 0.32 (0.27–0.38)* 0.36 (0.28–0.46)*
Gender     
   ▪ Male 1290 (52.8) 21.9 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Female 1151 (47.2) 24.3 1.33 (1.04–1.60)* 1.31 (1.07–1.61)*
Region     
   ▪ Muscat 1241 (50.8) 19.3 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Sharqiyah 1200 (49.2) 29.5 1.75 (1.45–2.10)* 1.31 (1.07–1.62)*
Father education     
   ▪ No School education 973 (41.1) 30.2 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Didn't complete High School 905 (38.2) 22.8 0.68 (0.55–0.83)* 0.79 (0.62–1.00)
   ▪ Completed High School 492 (20.8) 15.4 0.42 (0.32–0.55)* 0.65 (0.45-.92)*
Mother education     
   ▪ No School education 1328 (55.3) 27.7 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Didn't complete High School 829 (34.5) 21.6 0.72 (0.59–0.88)* 0.86 (0.67–1.10)
   ▪ Completed High School 244 (10.2) 13.9 0.42 (0.29–0.61)* 0.68 (0.43–1.07)*
Any parent smoking     
   ▪ No 1860 (76.2) 24.4 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 581 (23.8) 24.3 1.00 (0.80–1.23) 1.02 (0.80–1.31)
  1. *Statistically significant at p-value < 0.05
  2. # adjusted for all variables listed in the table.