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Table 3 Crude and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for home related risk factors for asthma using logistic regression analysis

From: Home exposure to Arabian incense (bakhour) and asthma symptoms in children: a community survey in two regions in Oman

  Number (%) of total sample Current asthma prevalence (%) Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR#
(95% CI)
Gender     
   ▪ Male 1290 (52.8) 15.0 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Female 1151 (47.2) 15.9 1.08 (0.86–1.34) 1.08 (0.85–1.37)
Region     
   ▪ Muscat 1241 (50.8) 10.7 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Sharqiyah 1200 (49.2) 20.3 2.12 (1.68–2.66)* 1.79 (1.38–2.32)*
Atopy in parents     
   ▪ None 1836 (75.2) 11.3 1.00 1.00
   ▪ One parent 412 (16.9) 27.8 2.61 (2.900–340)* 2.48 (1.86–3.29)*
   ▪ Both parents 193 (7.9) 33.7 3.98 (2.85–5.54)* 3.23 (2.425–4.63)*
Father education     
   ▪ No School education 973 (41.1) 17.1 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Didn't complete High School 905 (38.2) 15.5 0.89 (0.70–1.14) 1.18 (0.89–1.58)
   ▪ Completed High School 492 (20.8) 10.8 0.59 (0.42–0.82)* 1.16 0.77–1.75)
Mother education     
   ▪ No School education 1328 (55.3) 17.3 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Didn't complete High School 829 (34.5) 14.4 0.80 (0.63–1.02) 0.95 (0.72–1.27)
   ▪ Completed High School 244 (10.2) 8.6 0.45 (0.28–0.72)* 0.62 (0.36–1.07)
Any parent smoking     
   ▪ No 1860 (76.2) 13.9 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 581 (23.8) 20.3 1.66 (1.24–2.01)* 1.59 (1.22–2.07)*
Bakhour use     
   ▪ Never or rarely 463 (19.0) 18.8 1.00 1.00
   ▪ 1–2 times/week 549 (22.5) 12.6 0.59 (0.42–0.84)* 0.68 (0.46–1.01)
   ▪ >2 times/week 1423 (58.4) 15.7 0.80 (0.61–1.06) 0.87 (0.63–1.20)
Use of gas cooking     
   ▪ No 547 (22.4) 14.3 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 1894 (77.6) 15.7 1.12 (0.86–1.47) 1.13 (0.83–1.55)
Air conditions     
   ▪ No 287 (11.8) 25.8 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 2154 (88.2) 14.0 0.47 (0.51–0.63)* 0.56 (0.40–0.80)*
Damp spots on house walls     
   ▪ No 2218 (90.9) 14.7 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 223 (9.1) 22.9 1.72 (1.24–2.41)* 1.47 (1.01–2.12) *
Use of carpet     
   ▪ None 343 (14.1) 15.2 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Fitted carpet 1549 (63.5) 12.5 0.80 (0.57–1.12) 0.80 (0.56–1.16)
   ▪ Loose carpet 131 (5.4) 29.0 2.29 (1.42–3.69)* 1.99 (1.11–3.24)*
   ▪ Fitted and loose carpets 418 (17.1) 22.2 1.76 (1.10–2.33)* 1.25 (0.81–1.94)
Feather pillow     
   ▪ No 2177 (89.2) 14.8 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 264 (10.8) 20.1 1.44 (1.04–2.33)* 1.14 (0.80–1.64)
Cat ownership     
   ▪ No 1785 (73.1) 14.3 1.00 1.00
   ▪ Yes 656 (26.9) 18.3 1.34 (1.05–1.70)* 1.18 (0.90–1.52)
  1. *Statistically significant at p-value 0.05
  2. # adjusted for all variables listed in the table