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Table 3 Studies were direct cost exceeded indirect cost of asthma

From: Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review

References No. Country Study duration Sample size Total direct cost/person Mean annual direct cost/person % Total indirect cost Total cost Mean annual cost/person
Institutional studies
11 US 1 yr 401 - 3,307 65 1,801 - 4,158
18 Canada 1 yr 149 196,898ϕ - 74 67,729 264,627 -
      - - - - -
42 Canada 1 yr 339 - 1,200 x 88 157 - 1,357
      752 y 100 -   752
      85 z 56 66   151
Regional studies
47 Australia 1 yr 1.2 m 273 - 77 81 354 -
National studies
14 US 1 yr 4.7 m 7,301 - 88 955 8,256 -
29 Canada 1 yr N/A * 397 - 61 257 654 -
48 Switzerland 1 yr N/A * 860 - 61 553 1,413 -
49 US 1 yr N/A * 3,822 - 53 3,367 7,189 -
58 US 10 yrs 14.2 m 8,665 - 57 6,583 15,248 -
  1. All costs are converted and adjusted into 2008 US dollars
  2. Cost in regional and national studies are in million of dollars
  3. Φ: of total study sample size, x = societal perspective, y = ministry of health perspective, z = patient perspective
  4. m: million; yr: year; N/A*: data not available