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Table 6 Studies that represented medication costs as the largest component of total asthma related cost

From: Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review

References No. Country Study duration Sample size Cost of medication/person Total direct cost Total cost Mean annual cost/person
     Mean SD 95%CI %    
Institutional studies
11 US 1 yr 401 2,070    50 4,101   
13 Spain 1 yr 333 552 454   45 1,221   3,971
15 Canada 1 yr 940 56¥     82   
16 Italy 1 yr 446 240   181–299 47 ν    1,186
19 Turkey 1 yr 118 1,388 109   81 1,713   
22 US 1 yr 638 141    53 ψ 488 727  
23 France 1 yr 234 -    60–75 ξ -   
27 Sweden 1 yr 220 463    56 822 0.62 b 2,655
28 Australia 1 yr 245 55    89¢    235 ¥
35 Switzerland 1 yr 263 814 735   70 1,156   
55 Thailand 1 yr 183 72 111   47 154 §   
60 Estonia 1 yr 1,423 154,140ϕ    53 ψ 3.60 m   203
Regional studies
37 US 1 yr 25,614 -    38    679
47 Australia 1 yr 1.2 m 147 m    54 273 m 354 m  
National studies
29 Canada 1 yr N/A* 164 m    - 404 m   
43 US 1 yr 2.52 m 495 m 66   43   2.3 b  
51 Germany 1 yr 52,794 0.58 b    84 0.69 b 2.74 b  
  1. All costs are converted and adjusted into 2008 US dollars
  2. Cost information of study 46 was not available
  3. ¥: From the patient's perspective; ¥: Total annual cost per person of asthma management to individuals; ν: 47% of mean annual direct cost per patient;
  4. ¢ :The major component of the individual cost; N/A*: All asthmatic patients in 1990; ξ: 75% of stage 2&3 and 60% of stages 1&4 (the total amount is not available); §: hospital resource utilization; ψ: 53% of total medical expenditure; ϕ: of total study sample size; m: million, b: billion; yr: year