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Table 7 Studies that represented loss of productivity due to absenteeism from work/school as the largest proportion of total indirect costs

From: Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review

References No. Country Study duration Sample size Productivity loss/person Total indirect cost Total asthma related cost
     Mean SD 95%CI %   
Institutional studies
10 US 1 yr 3528 83 - - - 148 -
11 US 1 yr 401 1,370 - - 61 2,234 -
13 Spain 1 yr 333 553,569 ϕ - - - 915,674 -
15¥ Canada 1 yr 940 935 - - 92 1,018 -
     1,411 - - 50 2,836 -
16 Italy 1 yr 527 416 - 261–573 53 663 -
18 Canada 1 yr 149 44,623 - - - 67,729 -
21 US 1 yr 443 1,437 3732 - - 1,788 -
23* France 1 yr 318 - - - -   -
26 Hungary 1 yr 378 x 540 - - - 1,132 -
    711 y 170 - - - 810 -
27 Sweden 1 yr 115 1,399 - - 76 1,778 -
42 Canada 1 yr 339 66 - - 44 150 -
50 Denmark 1 yr 115 760,853 ϕ - - 62 822,067 1.2 m
National studies
14 US 1 yr 35000 315 m - 113–517 33 955 m 8,256 m
20 Singapore 1 yr 142,300 18.5 m - - 37 24.31 m 49.36 m
43 US 1 yr 2.52 b 821 m - - - 1,124 m 2.3 b
48 Switzerland 1 yr N/A 414 m - - 75 551 m 1,413 m
49 US 1 yr N/A 1,448 m - - - 4.2 b 7.2 b
58 US 10 yrs 14.2 m 1,902 m - - - 6,583 m 15,248 m
  1. All costs are converted and adjusted into 2008 US dollars
  2. * Cost information of studies 65 and 22 were not available
  3. ¥: 92% from the patient perspective and 50% from the societal perspective; ϕ: of total study sample size; N/A: Number of asthmatics patients in US in 1985
  4. x: adult and pediatric patients, y: pediatrics; m: million; b: billion