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Table 1 Demographics and Baseline Values of Outcome Variables

From: The efficacy of a comprehensive lifestyle modification programme based on yoga in the management of bronchial asthma: a randomized controlled trial

  Yoga group (n = 29) Control group (n = 28) p-value
Age, years (mean ± SD) 33.5 ± 11.4 33.4 ± 11.5 0.96
   Males, n (%) 13 (45) 20 (71) 0.29
   Females, n (%) 16 (55) 8 (29) 0.19
Weight, kg (mean ± SD) 61.3 ± 11.5 58.9 ± 9.7 0.93
Height, cm (mean ± SD) 162 ± 10.1 161.8 ± 7.4 0.40
Body Mass Index (BMI) (mean ± SD) 23.4 ± 4.3 22.6 ± 4.0 0.44
Family history of asthma present, n (%) 13 (44.8) 11 (39.3) 0.67
Duration of Asthma, years (mean ± SD) 11.6 ± 9.5 10.5 ± 11.9 0.22
   Mild asthma, n (%) 13 (44.8) 11 (39.3) 0.78
   Moderate asthma, n (%) 16 (55) 17 (60.7) 0.82
FVC (% of predicted) 78.7 ± 13.3 75.2 ± 15.0 0.35
FEV1 (% of predicted) 70.2 ± 17.4 62.5 ± 19.2 0.11
FEV1/FVC (% of predicted) 80.4 ± 11.5 73.7 ± 14.8 0.06
PEFR (% of predicted) 68.6 ± 18.4 57.4 ± 19.7 0.03
FEF25-75 (% of predicted) 38.4 ± 14.5 33.9 ± 18.3 0.31
Serum ECP level (ng/mL) 1.32 ± 0.51 1.25 ± 0.43 0.89
EIB (%fall in FEV1 with EC) 15.0 ± 14.0 9.1 ± 10.8 0.16
Urinary 11β-PGF2α before exercise (pg/mg of creatinine), median (IQR) 455.4 (107.2–1098.1) 223.7 (98.8–562.7) 0.12
Δ Urinary 11β-PGF2α (pg/mg of creatinine) with exercise challenge, median (IQR) 26.9 (7.4–218) 38.4 (3.1–108) 0.55
AQOL total score 3.72 ± 1.17 3.64 ± 1.14 0.80
AQOL symptoms score 3.77 ± 1.34 3.62 ± 1.42 0.70
AQOL activity limitation score 3.66 ± 1.13 3.67 ± 1.17 0.95
AQOL emotional function score 3.94 ± 1.47 3.59 ± 1.39 0.35
AQOL environmental stimuli score 3.72 ± 1.17 4.04 ± 1.42 0.14
  1. Abbreviations: AQOL, Asthma Quality of Life; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FEF25–75%, forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC; FVC, forced vital capacity; PEFR, peak expiratory flow rate; ECP, eosinophilic cationic protein; IQR, inter- quartile range; EC, exercise challenge; EIB, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction; 11β-PGF2α, 11β prostaglandin F2α.
  2. p-value obtained by from Chi-square analysis or 't' test or Mann-Whitney U test depending on the type of variables.
  3. All values are expressed as mean ± SD, except ECP expressed as log-transformed values and 11β-PGF2α as median with inter-quartile range.