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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the 450 Patients with CAP separated by Legionella CAP (n = 82) and non-Legionella CAP (n = 368).

From: Clinical predictors for Legionella in patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia to the emergency department

  LegionellaCAP
(n = 82)
Non-LegionellaCAP
(n = 368)
P-value
Demographic characteristics    
- Age (years)* 68 (49–77) 73 (59–82) 0.01
- Sex (male) – no. (%) 57 (70) 221 (60) 0.11
Coexisting illnesses – no. (%)    
- Congestive heart disease 20 (24) 156 (42) 0.003
- Cerebrovascular disease 7 (9) 20 (5) 0.29
- Renal dysfunction 23 (28) 100 (27) 0.15
- COPDa 8 (10) 90 (24) 0.004
- Neoplastic disease 17 (21) 53 (14) 0.15
Clinical History – no. (%)    
- Antibiotic pretreatment 27 (33) 75 (20) 0.01
- Cough 55 (70) 329 (89) <0.001
- increase in sputum production 26 (34) 265 (72) <0.001
- Dyspnea 46 (60) 266 (72) 0.03
Clinical and laboratory findings    
- Confusion – no. (%) 9 (11) 31 (8) 0.4
- Respiratory rate (breaths/minute)* 18 (16–28) 22 (20–28) 0.01
- Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 130 (113–145) 130 (113–143) 0.9
- Heart rate (beats/minute)* 100 (86–114) 95 (80–110) 0.05
- Body temperature (°C)* 39.3 (38.5–40.1) 38.4 (37.6–39.2) <0.001
Laboratory findings    
- C-reactive protein (mg/L)* 241 (171–315) 134 (67–217) <0.001
- Procalcitonin (μg/L)* 2.90 (0.93–6.43) 0.57 (0.19–2.61) <0.01
- Hematocrit (%)* 37 (32–41) 38 (35–40) 0.17
- Leucocyte counts (×109/L)* 12.9 (9.5–15.5) 12.8 (8.9–16.8) 0.47
- Platelet counts (×109/L)* 191 (141–253) 243 (190–326) <0.001
- Sodium (mmol/L)* 132 (128–135) 136 (133–138) <0.001
< 131 mmol/L – no. (%) 36 (46) 49 (14) <0.001
- Creatinine (umol/L)* 101 (80–144) 105 (83–138) 0.29
- Urea (mmol/L)* 8.3 (5.4–14.2) 6.9 (4.9–11.5) 0.93
- Elevated liver enzymesb – no. (%) 52 (63) 126 (34) <0.001
- Creatinine kinase (U/L)* 103 (48–417) 77 (41–174) <0.01
- Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L)* 252 (204–382) 214 (175–268) <0.001
- Glucose (mmol/L)* 6.9 (6.1–9.7) 6.8 (5.9–8.4) 0.12
- Oxygen saturation (%)* 93 (88–95) 93 (89–96) 0.46
- PaO2 (kPa)* 7.7 (7.1–9.9) 8.0 (6.8–9.5) 0.82
- pH* 7.46 (7.38–7.49) 7.43 (7.39–7.46) 0.02
- Hemoglobinuria – no. (%) 45 (70) 114 (45) <0.001
- Proteinuria – no. (%) 46 (73) 124 (48) <0.001
Risk assessment    
- PSIc Points* 117 (90–140) 95 (73–121) <0.001
- CURB65* 2 (1–2) 1 (1–2) 0.09
Outcome – no. (%)    
- Death 13 (16) 33 (9) 0.06
- Admission to ICUd 34 (41) 43 (12) 0.01
- Length of hospital stay (days)* 13 (8–20) 11 (6–17) 0.02
  1. * denotes median (interquartile range); a COPD denotes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; b elevated liver enzymes denotes elevation of ASAT and/or ALAT; c PSI denotes Pneumonia Severity Index; d ICU denotes intensive care unit.