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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population at study enrolment

From: Plasma CC16 levels are associated with development of ALI/ARDS in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia: a retrospective observational study

  Patients with VAP Patients without VAP (controls)
  patients developing ALI/ARDS patients not developing ALI/ARDS  
  (n = 10) (n = 12) (n = 15)
Age (yrs) 67 ± 17 64 ± 13 56 ± 14
Male gender (n, %) 7 (70%) 10 (83%) 8 (67%)
APACHE II-score 22.4 ± 6.7 23.7 ± 4.2 19.7 ± 9.6
MODS 10.8 ± 3.8 10.8 ± 3.0 7.2 ± 3.2*
LIS 1.9 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 0.7
CPIS 5.5 ± 1.8 6.7 ± 1.4 4.9 ± 1.4*
Tidal volume (ml) 550 ± 90 585 ± 110 590 ± 130
Tidal volume per kg IBW (ml/kg) 6.6 ± 1.8 7.8 ± 1.6 7.7 ± 1.7
Smoking history 7 (70%) 5 (42%) 7 (47%)
Bronchial asthma 0 (0%) 1 (8%) 0 (0%)
   CC16 (ng/ml) 30 [10 - 36] 14 [8.1 - 26] 6.5 [3.6 - 20]
   sRAGE (pg/ml) 862 [245 - 1582] 830 [499 - 1527] 560 [350 - 847]
   SP-D (ng/ml) 12 [3.7 - 28] 17 [5.1 - 32] 14 [10 - 23]
   KL-6 (U/ml) 292 [183 - 495] 279 [161 - 470] 283 [164 - 377]
Admission diagnosis    
   Abdominal sepsis 1 2 3
   Abdominal aortic aneurysm   1  
   Aspiration pneumonia 1 1  
   Cardiac arrest 0 2  
   Cardiac surgery 3 4 2
   Intracranial hemorrhage    2
   Meningitis 1 1  
   Near drowning 1   
   Fasciitis necroticans    3
   Pancreatitis 1   2
   Trauma 2 1 3
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; MOD, multiple organ dysfunction; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; LIS, lung injury score; CPIS, clinical pulmonary infection score; IBW, ideal body weight; CC16, Clara cell protein; sRAGE, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products; SP-D, surfactant protein D; *statistical significance (p < 0.05 in post-hoc analysis) of controls vs. VAP patients developing ALI/ARDS and vs. VAP patients not developing ALI/ARDS.