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Table 5 Synthesis of previously and currently reviewed studies regarding population attributable fraction (PAR) for occupational exposures and asthma.

From: Asthma caused by occupational exposures is common – A systematic analysis of estimates of the population-attributable fraction

Type of study Studies Included Ref Range Mean Median
Current review      
Longitudinal 6 19–24 8.6%–44% 19.3% 16.3%
Case-control 3 26–29 9.5%–21.4% 14.8% 13.5%
Cross-sectional 7 31–37 7.0%–31.3% 16.1% 13.6%
Current and earlier review      
Longitudinal 6 19–24 8.6%–44.0% 19.3% 16.3%
Case-control 6 26–29, 41–43 9.5%–36.0% 20.7% 12.2%
Cross-sectional 14 31–37, 44–51 7%–51% 21.2% 17.6%
All 26 See above 7%–51% 20.7% 17.6%
All, adult-onset asthma only 17 19–24, 26, 28–31, 34–36, 42, 43, 45 8.6%–44.0% 18.8.5% 16.9%