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Table 3 Means and changes by year of lung function parameter observed and predicted from GLI and their differences for asymptomatic subjects, compared with t -test for paired data

From: Lung function changes from childhood to adolescence: a seven-year follow-up study

   2003 2010 Δ/year
   Mean p Mean p   p
FEV 1 (ml) Observed 1107.4   2435.9   180.4  
Predicted 1123.2   2497.5   188.3  
δ −15.8 NS −61.6 * −7.9 *
95% CI of δ (−32.8 - +5.6)   (−103.4 --19.8)    
Z-score 50 tile −0.138   −0.203    
Z-score 5 tile −1.583   −1.548    
lln 879.5   2017.8    
FVC (ml) Observed 1120.7   2824.1   233.4  
Predicted 1216.0   2876.4   227.8  
δ −95.2 ** −52.3 ** 5.6 **
95% CI of δ (−116.2 - -74.3)   (−91.9 - -12.7)    
Z-score 50 tile −0.645   −0.113    
Z-score 5 tile −1.954   −1.468    
lln 943.9   2329.9    
FEV 1 /FVC (%) Observed 96.6   85.5   −1.57  
Predicted 92.9   87.1   −0.8  
δ 3.7 ** −2.4 ** −0.77 **
95% CI of δ (+3.0 - +4.3)   (−2.4 - -0.8)    
Z-score 50 tile 0.961   −0.207    
Z-score 5 tile −0.905   −1.664    
lln 81.6   76.3    
FEF 25–75 (ml/s) Observed 1621.3   2766.9   152.8  
Predicted 1602.6   2955.8   185.2  
δ 18.7 NS −269.6 ** −32.3 **
95% CI of δ (−25.0 - +62.3)   (−269.6 - -108.2)    
Z-score 50 tile 0.045   −0.306    
Z-score 5 tile −1.357   −1.912    
lln 967.0   1954.3    
  1. Legend:
  2. δ: Observed. Predicted by GLI.
  3. Δ: (Differences between the 2 occasions/Years of follow-up).
  4. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01.
  5. CI = Confidence interval.
  6. Z-Score = (standard deviation scores from regression Equation).
  7. 50tile = Median 5tile = fifth percentile.
  8. lln = lower limit of normality of predicted values.